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Fear of Heights. Video Game Mod: Max Payne. Controlled Studies: n > 8. Claustrophobia. 3-D Virtual Reality as a tool in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Claustrophobic Patients (Bullinger et al. 1998). Subjects: 13 Healthy subjects 2 claustrophobic patients Apparatus: Data Glove HMD

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slide4
3-D Virtual Reality as a tool in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Claustrophobic Patients(Bullinger et al. 1998)
  • Subjects:
    • 13 Healthy subjects
    • 2 claustrophobic patients
  • Apparatus:
    • Data Glove
    • HMD
    • CAVEEE (Computer-aided virtual environment for engineering and exploration)
  • Virtual Environment:
    • Movable front wall
    • 3-D virtual room
    • Subjects were able to move head around in 3-D environment
measures
Measures
  • Blood pressure
  • Pulse and O2 saturation

Online Measurement

results
Results
  • Healthy Subjects
    • 45-min exposure cannot be regarded as anxiety- or stress-inducing in itself
  • Female Patients
    • Presentation of specific stimulus triggered subjectively disturbance-specific symptoms for the patients
    • Mild rise of the pulse rate at the time of stimulus presentation
results of subject exposures
Results of Subject Exposures

aX = measurement

Pulse and Oxygen saturation of the blood were continuously measured and optically displayed

slide10

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • Sample Population
    • 28 individuals diagnosed with arachnophobia
    • Recruitment through media advertisement (newspapers, publicities in universities and public places)
    • All participants had to be adults
slide11

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • Results:
    • Questionnaires
slide12

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • BAT Results:
      • During pretest, no participants were able to reach the last two steps (23 cm and 1 minute of looking into the case)
      • At post-treatment, 60.7% were able to bring the tarantula 23 cm close to them and 46.4% were able to look into the case for 1 minute
slide13

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • Results:
    • Virtual reality related measures
slide14

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • Results:
    • Virtual reality related measures
slide15

Arachnophobia: Fear of Spiders

(Côté & Bouchard, 2005)

  • Conclusion:
    • Positive change in physiological data after treatment suggests decrease in anxiety
    • Avoidance is significantly reduced after treatment
    • A clinically and statistically effective treatment, as measured by questionnaires and a BAT, produce a significant decrease in physiological arousal when facing a live spider
    • In order to provide firm conclusions on the efficacy of virtual reality exposure more physiological parameters can be added, like skin conductance and respiration rate
    • The impact of the treatment could also be compared to a controlled study
slide16

*

Regression predicting general outcome with beliefs, self-efficacy and information processing.(Côté & Bouchard, 2006)

The regression was significant (Adj R2 = .52), with a significant increase in variance when entering the predictors [R2 change = .48, F(3,18) = 8.52 , p < 0.001].

* p < .05

slide17
Regression predicting avoidance (BAT) with beliefs, self-efficacy and information processing.(Côté & Bouchard, 2006)

The regression was significant (Adj R2 = .53), with a significant increase in variance when entering the predictors [R2 change = .28, F(3,19) = 5.35 , p < 0.01].

*

* p < .05

slide18
Regression predicting physiological response (IBI) with beliefs, self-efficacy and information processing.(Côté & Bouchard, 2006)

The regression was significant (Adj R2 = 24.), with a significant increase in variance when entering the predictors [R2 change = .36, F(3,18) = 4.16 , p < 0.02] .

*

* p < .05

slide19
Arachnophobia: 36 participants(Hoffman HG, Garcia-Palacios A, Carlin A, Furness TA III, Botella-Arbona C, 2003)

Design

  • Three 1-hr exposure therapy sessions

Results for treatment groups

  • Clinically significant drop in behavioral avoidance. Tactile group showed greater progress.
  • Clinically significant drop in subjective fear rating.

36 Participants

  • 8 clinically phobic students
  • 28 nonclinically phobic students

Treatment Conditions

  • No treatment
  • VR
  • VR w/tactile spider
tactile augmentation could be a useful add on hoffman et al 2003
Tactile augmentation could be a useful add-on.(Hoffman et al., 2003)

Interaction p < .001

TR+T > VR > Ctrl

Interaction p < .001

TR+T = VR > Ctrl

Interaction p < .001

TR+T = VR > Ctrl

N = 36 (8 phobics)

Presence was higher in VR+T

pilot study bouchard s jacques in preparation
Pilot Study(Bouchard & S-Jacques, in preparation)
  • Nine children aged between 9 and 14.
  • Reliably diagnosed with arachnophobia.
  • Treatment :
    • one introductory session
    • three 90-minutes in VR exposure
      • 3 blocs of 20 minutes each except the last session (2)
  • The study is based on a single case design with multiple baselines across subjects.
questionnaires data
Questionnaires Data

p < .01

p < .01

p < .01

slide24

AUGMENTED REALITY

AR refers to the introduction of virtual elements in the real world.

The person is seeing an image composed of a visualization of the real world, and a series of virtual elements that, at that same time, are super-imposed on the real world.

The most important aspect of AR is that the virtual elements supply to the person relevant information that is not contained in the real world.

AR has an important potential, and has already been used in diverse fields, such as medicine, the army, coaching, engineering, design, and

robotics.

slide25

AUGMENTED REALITY

  • AR Advantages
  • - Like in the classical systems of virtual reality, it
  • is possible to have total control over the virtual elements that are super-imposed on the real world, and how one interacts with those elements.
  • It can be less expensive since it also uses the real world (this does not need to be modelled),
  • It can facilitate the feeling of presence and the reality judgment since the environment the user is in, and what he or she is seeing is, in fact the “reality.”
slide27

AUGMENTED REALITY

The first case study in which AR has been used for the treatment of a specific phobia: cockroach phobia.

The system allows to conduct exposure to virtual cockroaches that are super-imposed on the real world.

In order to carry out the exposure, the Öst’s guidelines with respect to “one-session treatment” were followed.

The total duration of the exposure session was 60 min.