Translation Samuel Butler: Commonly mistakes the one and misinforms the other.
Now the whole earth had one language and the same words, and as they migrated eastward, they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.” The lord came down to see the city and the tower, which mortals had belt.
And the lord said, “Look they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and confuse their language there, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.” so the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. Therefore it was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth. (Holy Bible, 1995:14)
Definitions of translation • 1. Translation is the expression in one language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another (source language).——Dubois • 2. Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.——Eugene Nida
Definition of translation Alexander Fraser Tytler: I would therefore describe a good translation to be, that, in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work (1790). Peter Newmark: Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and / or statement in one language by the same message and / or statement in another language.
翻译名义集自序 • 法云（1088－1158）：宋平江（今江苏苏州）景德寺僧 • 夫翻译者，谓翻梵天之语转成汉地之言。音虽似别，义则大同。宋僧传云：如翻锦绣，背面俱华，但左右不同耳。译之言易也，谓以所有易其所无，故以此方之经而显彼土之法。周礼掌四方之语，各有其官。东方曰寄，南方曰象，西方曰狄鞮，北方曰译。今通西言而云译者，盖汉世多事北方，而译官兼善西语故。摩腾始至，而译《四十二章》，因称译也。 《礼记.王制》：“中国，夷，蛮，戎，狄……五方之民，言语不通，嗜欲不同，达其志，通其欲：东方曰寄，南方曰象，西方曰狄鞮，北方曰译。”
译经：许渊冲 • Translation is possible, 译可译， • It’s not transliteration. 非常译； • Neglect the original form, 忘其形， • Get the original idea! 得其意。 • Getting the idea, 得意， • You understand the original; 理解之始； • Neglecting the form, 忘形， • You express the idea. 表达之母。
Be true to the idea, 故应得意， • Common in two languages; 以求其同； • Be free from the form, 故可忘形， • Peculiar to the original! 以存其异。 • Idea and form are, 两者同出， • Two sides of one thing. 异名同理。 • Getting the common idea, 得意忘形， • Neglecting the original form! 求同存异。 • That’s the way of translation. 翻译之道。
Principles of translation • Yan Fu(严复): Truthfulness(信), expressiveness (达), elegance (雅) • 天演论译例言：信、达、雅。求其信已大难矣！顾信矣不达，虽译犹不译也，则达尚焉。 • 《易》曰：“修辞立诚”。子曰：“辞达而已”。又曰：“言之无文，行之不远”。三者乃文章正轨，亦即为译事楷模。故信、达而外，求其尔雅。
Anlexander Fraser Tytler’s Principles • 1. The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. • 2. The style and manner of writing should be the same character with that of the original. • 3. The translation should have all the ease of the original composition.
Eugene Nida’s functional equivalence • Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.
浮白主人说《笑林》，古人居然笑今人一青盲人涉讼，自诉眼瞎。官曰：“一双青白眼，如何诈瞎？”答曰：“老爷看小人是清白的，小人看老爷是糊涂的。”浮白主人说《笑林》，古人居然笑今人一青盲人涉讼，自诉眼瞎。官曰：“一双青白眼，如何诈瞎？”答曰：“老爷看小人是清白的，小人看老爷是糊涂的。” • 《礼记·学记》： • “凡学之道，严师为难。师严然后道尊，道尊然后民知敬学。”About learning, the most difficult thing is to find strict teachers. Only when the teachers are strict, can the students appreciate the Tao. Only when the Tao is appreciated, can people respect learning.
望文生义是大忌，下笔从译须小心 • 《中庸·天命章》：“天命之谓性，率性之谓道，修道之谓教。” • （“性”，即人的本性，属上天所赋予；“道”，即按照本性行事之法；“教”，即修治其道的教化之举。） • 辜鸿鸣翻译如下： • The ordinance of God is what we call the law of our being (性). To fulfill the law of our being is what we call the moral law (道). The moral law when reduced to a system is what we call religion (教).
蝴蝶采空三百园，译人空采园百三 • 挣破庄周梦，两翅驾东风，三百座名园一采一个空。谁道风流种，唬杀寻芳的蜜蜂。轻轻飞动，把买花人搧过桥东。 ——元•王和卿《咏大蝴蝶》
第二讲：理解与比较 • 似是而非，似非而是； • 译理定数，游若鬼神。 • 瞬息之际，乾坤倒转； • 分寸之间，雄兵百万。
词似是，意却非 • 一、语序之更与语意之变 • 1. Anyhow, he works • He works anyhow. • 2. We may as well take this. • We may take this as well. • 3. She foolishly spoke. • She spoke foolishly. • 4. Happily he did not die. • He did not die happily.
二、东西悬隔，语意殊异 • 1. I could do with more leisure (can do=be satisfied with) • 2. You must make good any loss. • 3. The apples are good and ripe. (good and=very) • 4. The smoke betrayed where the dwelling lay.
5. Curses come home to roost. • 6. He was strong in his time (in one’s time=when he was young). • 7. He is ignorant to a proverb. • 8. He identified himself with the masses. • 9. In China, his name was well known, if not a household word.
10. You are not playing the game. • 11. The singer has her head turned. • 12. Somebody will have to break the ice. • 13. One observer believed Kissinger’s genius was an ability to tell nine different stories to nine people, and keep them all straight. • 14. Truth lies in the bottom of the decanter. • 15. Better not be at all than not be noble.
第八讲:转换词类 趣不乘本Transfer parts of speech without changing meaning of the originial 英译为汉 理解领先 词类转换 随机应变 方法一般 技巧灵便
名词转换动词 表达更为坚实 • 1. Wenli flared up at the sight of her husband walking with Li Tianjiao. • 2. His use of acupuncture, previously taboo throughout most of European countries, has improved the clinical therapeutic effect of apoplexy treatment. • 3. No violation of One-China principle can be tolerated. • 4. His insistence on her innocence arouses our attention. • 5. Liu Xiang has become the object of admiration for many people overnight.
动词转化名词 意义更为明晰 • 1. Feeling pulse features the traditional system of treatment in China. • 2. I really don’t know what motivates her to join this small party. • 3. Common cold is characterized by cough, fever, headache and running nose. • 4. What Shanghai man impresses me most is their clearness, industriousness and slickness. • 5. This remedy is marked by immediate effect, low cost and mild side effect.
介词转换动词 体现汉语异质 • 1. We are surprised at what he has mentioned just now. • 2. We are for/against taking such an action. • 3. Very few people write with a brush now. • 4. Most people in China travel by train
形容词转动词 语意明晰有力 • 1. We are not sure whether doctors can save his life. • 2. The old man is content to stay in the country. • 3. Mice are quite alerted to danger. • 4. He walked out quietly, as he was afraid of disturbing others. • 5. We are very grateful to you for your help. • 6. He was jealous of his friend’s success.
形容词转副词 修饰搭配一致 • 1. Doctors are making comprehensive study of this case. • 2. Policemen are conducting a carefulinvestigation of this case. • 3. It was a clear and unemotional exposition of the President’s reasons for willing to begin a Chinese-American dialogue.
副词转换动词 表达更为有力 • 1. The negotiation is off. • 2. The light was still on when he left the classroom. • 3. The battle was still on when a great storm occurred. • 4. The roses are out. • 5. The tide is out.
名词转换形容词 语意刻画更细腻 • 1. Chairman Mao was a great success in his career, but a total failure as a husband. • 2. It’s of great importance for students majoring in English to learn Chinese well. • 3. To our great surprise, USSR disappeared overnight. • 4. It is of great significance to invigorate traditional Chinese studies.
A powerful earthquakestruck Western China on Monday, toppling thousands of homes, factories and offices, trapping students in schools, and killing at least 10,000 people，destroying 80 percent of structures in some of the towns and small cities near its epicenter. Its tremors were felt as far away as Vietnam and set off another, smaller quake in the outskirts of Beijing, 900 miles away. 地动山摇玉盘碎 撒向神州皆是泪
Landslides and power failures left much of the affected area cut off from the outside world and limited information about the damage. 房倒屋塌天地陷 霎时人间地狱变
The quake was the latest in a series of events that have disrupted China’s planning for the Olympic Games in August, including widespread unrest among the country’s ethnic Tibetan population. 废墟犹忆昨日梦 莘莘学子今何境
总理亲临第一线 指挥健儿排万难 • The prime minister was later shown on national television standing outside the damaged edifice of the Traditional Medicine Hospital in the city of Dujiangyan, shouting encouragement at people trapped in its ruins.“Hang on a bit longer,” he said. “The troops are rescuing you. As long as there is the slightest hope, we will never relax our efforts.”
The quake was already China’s biggest natural disaster since another earthquake leveled the city of Tangshan in eastern China in 1976, leaving 240,000 people dead. 当年唐山大地震 至今记忆尚犹新
Thousands of frogs are moving in May,7. Maybe sometimes animals know earlier than we human beings ! 地震来临有前兆 动物似乎早知道
Students read books for the upcoming senior high school entrance exams after an earthquake in Mianyang, Sichuan province May 12, 2008. 灾区学子夜读声 升起未来满天星
It was a typical summer evening in June, the atmosphere being in such delicate equilibrium and so transmisive that inanimate objects seemed endowed with two or three senses, if not five. There was no distinction between the near and the far, and an auditor felt close to everything within the horizon. The soundlessness impressed her as a positive entity rather as the mere negation of noise. It was broken by the strumming of strings.
If China is trying to catch up with the rest of the world in the 20th century, maybe the 21st century will belong to them. They have people, brains and they can be impressively disciplined. And their industrial potential is awesome. It may come to be commonly accepted in the next century that the most significant speech ever given by a fellow with a cowboy hat came not from Ronald Reagan but from an 80-year-old Chinese man.
2007年上海市高级口译汉英翻译题 • 据说上海男人是最好的丈夫。他们总是知道如何讨妻子的欢心，从而避免了矛盾，一家人其乐溶溶。所以从某种程度上讲，上海男人是社会安静和谐的象征。当妻子快乐时，他也快乐，因而整个城市也充满了快乐气氛。 • 虽然上海男人被戏谑为“妻管严”，但他并不屈服于妻子。在与妻子有争议时，他要么保持沉默，要么一笑了之。有时候他会发火，但事后不久，他也会毫不迟疑地道歉。最终他妻子发现，她还是按照他的想法行事。 • 上海男人聪明务实，有时也相当圆滑。最令人印象深刻的是，上海男人在事业上有进取心，对家庭有很强的责任感，而且尊重女性。
It is said that Shanghai men make the best husband. They always know how to gain favor with their wives; consequently conflicts between husband and wife are avoided, and the family lives a very happy and harmonious life. Therefore, to some extent, Shanghai men constitute the symbol of social stability and harmony. When his wife is happy, he is happy too. Thus the whole city is permeated with a happy atmosphere. • Although Shanghai men are bantered as henpecked husbands. They do not submit to their wives. When a dispute arises, the husband either keeps silent or laughs it off. Occasionally, he may lose his temper, but shortly afterwards he will not hesitate to apologize. In the end his wife finds herself following his way. • Shanghai men are clever, practical and sometimes rather slick. What impresses people most is that Shanghai men are imbued with an enterprising spirit in advancing his career, have a strong sense of responsibility for the family and respect the fair sex.
2007年上海市中级口译汉英翻译题 • 中国坚定不移地走和平发展道路，是基于中国国情的必然选择。1840年鸦片战争以后的100多年里，中国受尽了列强的欺辱。消除战争，实现和平，建设独立富强、民生幸福的国家，是近代以来中国人民孜孜以求的奋斗目标。今天的中国虽然取得了巨大的发展成就，但人口多，底子薄，发展不平衡，仍然是世界上最大的发展中国家。推动经济社会发展，不断改善人民生活始终是中国的中心任务。中国人民最需要、最珍爱和平的国际环境，愿尽自己的所能，为推动各国共同发展作出积极贡献。
It is an inevitable choice based on its national conditions that China unswervingly takes the road of peaceful development. During the 100-odd years following the Opium War in 1840, China suffered untold/utter/deep humiliation from the big powers. Ever since the advent of modern times, it has become the assiduously sought goal of the Chinese people to eliminate war, safeguard/maintain peace and build a country of independence and prosperity in which the people can lead a happy life. Although it has made enormous achievements in development, China, with a large population, a weak economic foundation and unbalanced development, is still the largest developing country in the world. It is the central task of China to promote economic and social development and improve its people’s life. What the Chinese people need and cherish most is a peaceful international environment. We are willing to do our best to make energetic contributions for the common development of all countries.
第四讲:增补词语 顺畅译文（教材第9章） • 中西言语不同，词序结构各异。翻译时为使译文通畅顺达，增补词语时有必须。根据译文需要，原文暗含之意，需要明确叙之；原文直白表述之意，译文可含蓄述之。诸如此类，不一而足。本章通过具体实例，揭示翻译中的增补之要。
1、抽象名词 具体释义 • 1. After all preparations were made, American-Korean dialogue was held in Beijing last week. • 2. This modern hospital is able to cope with various emergencies. • 3. The tensions between America and China was greatly improved after Nexion’s visit to Beijing.
补加修饰语 增强表达力 • 1. She was small, pale and sandy-haired. • 2. These early automobiles were slow, clumsy, and inefficient. • 3. The girl took the news quite palely and calmly.
介词之后，补增动词 • 1. In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts, and the table tennis exhibitions… • 2. There were no speeches, no foreign diplomats…
暗含之意，从实而译 • 1. It is the same old story of not being grateful for what we have until we lose it, of not being conscious of health until we are ill. • 2. What a idea/sight/day!
增补词语，顺承逻辑 • 1. New fathers should have at least two weeks paternity leave to help their wives recover from postnatal depression. • 2. The voter turnout was small and the margin tiny…
背景说明 须加补充 • 1. It was only when the economic bubble burst that they realized that they had been burying their heads in the sand for many years. • 2. The death of the Princess of Wales unleashed outpourings of newly coined honorifics.