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The Fourteenth Century: A Time Of Transition. Outline Chapter 11. Chapter 11: The Fourteenth Century: A Time Of Transition OUTLINE Calamity, Decay, and Violence The Black Death The Great Schism The Hundred Years' War Literature in Italy, England, and France Petrarch Chaucer

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outline chapter 11
Outline Chapter 11

Chapter 11: The Fourteenth Century:

A Time Of Transition

OUTLINE

Calamity, Decay, and Violence

The Black Death

The Great Schism

The Hundred Years' War

Literature in Italy, England, and France

Petrarch

Chaucer

Christine de Pisan

Art in Italy

The Italo-Byzantine Background

Giotto's Break with the Past

Painting in Siena

Art in Northern Europe

Late Gothic Architecture

Music: Ars Nova

timeline chapter 11
Timeline Chapter 11

Timeline Chapter 11: The Fourteenth Century: A Time Of Transition

c. 1280-1290 Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned; Crucifix, Arezzo

1296 Florence Cathedral (Duomo) begun

1300 Pope Boniface VIII proclaims first Jubilee Year ("Holy Year")

c. 1300 New naturalism in Italian painting appears with work of Giotto

1305-1306 Giotto, Arena Chapel frescoes

1310 G. Pisano completes Pisa Cathedral pulpit

1332-1357 Gloucester Cathedral choir ("Perpendicular" style)

1337-1453 Hundred Years' War between France and England

after 1337 Machaut, Messe de Notre Dame, polyphonic setting -Ordinary of the Mass

c. 1345-1438 Doge's Palace, Venice

1348-1352 Boccaccio, Decameron, collection of tales

after 1350 Petrarch compiles Canzoniere, collection of poems

c. 1377 Wycliff active in English church reform; translates Bible into English

1378 Great Schism begins

c. 1385-1400 Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, collection of tales

c. after 1389 Christine de Pisan, The City of Women

1395-1406 Sluter, Well of Moses

1413-1416 Limbourg Brothers, illustrations for Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

1417 Council of Constance ends Great Schism - election of Pope Martin V

the transition from medieval culture to the renaissance
The Transition from Medieval Culture to the Renaissance

The fourteenth century marks the painful transition from the medieval

period to the world of the Renaissance. Its beginning saw the

construction of several major buildings in Italy, including Florence's

Duomo and Siena's Palazzo Pubblico, seat of city government. Music

flourished throughout the century, especially in France, where Machaut

was the leading composer of his day.

In the years shortly after 1300 the new naturalistic style of Giotto

revolutionized the art of painting, while the works of the Pisano family

proved equally important for the history of sculpture.

Yet the age was fraught with disasters and racked

by war: the Hundred Years' War between France and England

(1337‚1453) was barely under way when in 1348 Europe was devastated

by bubonic plague – the Black Death. Among the works of literature

to reflect the effects of the terrible plague is Boccaccio's Decameron.

the papacy in avignon
The Papacy in Avignon

As the century began, the church appeared to be at the height of its

influence. In 1300 Pope Boniface VIII proclaimed the first holy year,

and pilgrims flocked to Rome. Yet within a few years the French had

forced the transfer of the papacy to Avignon in southern France.

Among those who accompanied the papal court was the poet Petrarch,

many of whose sonnets deal with his love for Laura,

killed by the Black Death.

The "Babylonian Captivity" lasted from 1309 to 1376,

and the pope's return to Rome was embittered by the Great Schism,

which saw the Western powers locked in a struggle

to impose rival claimants.

the international style
The International Style

One of the artistic consequences of the papal

move from Rome was that Italian styles were carried north of the Alps.

The resulting blend of Italian and Northern elements is called the

International style, which quickly spread throughout Europe;

two of its main centers were at Prague and at Dijon.

The more cosmopolitan spirit of the age is also illustrated by the

career of the greatest English writer of the time, Chaucer,

who traveled to Italy and to France and may actually have met Petrarch.

International Style in Painting

By the end of the 14th century, the fusion of Italian and Northern European art had led to the development of an International Gothic style. For the next quarter of a century, leading artists travelled from Italy to France, and vice versa, and all over Europe. As a consequence, ideas spread and merged, until eventually painters in this International Gothic style could be found in France, Italy, England, Germany, Austria and Bohemia.

social protests
Social Protests

In an age of such ferment the pressure for reform intensified.

In England, John Wyclif's charges of church corruption heightened

dissatisfaction among the lower classes, leading to peasant riots

in 1381.

Similar popular protests against both the church and the aristocracy

occurred in France in 1356, while in 1378 the poor woolen workers

of Florence revolted against the city authorities.

These manifestations of general discontent brought no immediate

radical changes in government, but they prepared the way for

the social mobility of the Renaissance.

the hundred years war
The Hundred Years' War

The greatest struggle of the century, the Hundred Years' War,

was supposedly fought over the right of succession to the French

throne. In fact, its underlying cause was the commercial rivalry

between France and England and the attempts of both countries

to gain control of the wool-manufacturing region of Flanders.

The war's early stages were marked by a series of English victories,

culminating in the battle of Poitiers of 1356. By 1380 the French had

reversed the tide, and the last years of the century saw

inconclusive skirmishes, with both sides resigned to a stalemate.

Thus, a century in which political, economic, and religious strife

and revolutionary artistic developments were accompanied by

the disaster of plague produced deep changes in the fabric of

European society and made possible the renewal of the Renaissance.

the black death
The Black Death
  • 1348 – death and devastation of European population from the Black Plaque
  • Boccaccio’s (1313 – 1375) Decameron
    • Vivid description of the horrors of the Plague
    • Thorough descriptions of life at the time
the great schism
The Great Schism
  • Convulsive changes in Christian church during the 14th century.
  • 1300 – Great Jubilee year declared by Pope Boniface, Rome
  • 3 years later Boniface abused and imprisoned by Philip the Fair of France.
  • 1309 – Seat of Papacy is moved to Avignon, France.
  • 1378 – 1417: Great Schism divides Papal allegiances of population between rival Papacies.
  • Late 14th century peasant revolts throughout Europe.
the hundred years war1
The Hundred Years’ War
  • Century of warfare between France and England.
literature in italy england and france
Literature in Italy, England, and France
  • Petrarch – (Father of Humanism)
  • Chaucer – (Father of English Literature)
  • Christine de Pisan - (Italian-born French poetess and philosopher)

Christine de Pisan

Petrarch

Chaucer

art in italy
Art in Italy

Italo-Byzantine

Background

- Pisano

- Cimabue

- Duccio

- Giotto

- Martini

- Lorenzetti

giovanni pisano
Giovanni Pisano

Last Judgment (detail)1310MarbleCathedral, Pisa

Massacre of the Innocents,

detail from pulpit1301, Marble,

Sant'Andrea, Pistoia

Pulpit, 1301, Marble, Sant'Andrea, Pistoia

cimabue
Cimabue

CIMABUEMadonna Enthroned

with the Child

and Two Angels-Tempera on wood,

Santa Maria

dei Servi, Bologna

CIMABUE, Crucifix1268-71Tempera on wood,

San Domenico, Arezzo

duccio
Duccio

DUCCIO di BuoninsegnaAgony in the Garden1308-11Tempera on wood, , Siena

DUCCIO di BuoninsegnaAgony in the Garden (details)1308-11Tempera on wood, Siena

giotto
Giotto

GIOTTO di BondoneBaroncelli Polyptychc. 1334Tempera on wood,

Baroncelli Chapel,

Santa Croce, Florence

GIOTTO di BondoneBaroncelli Polyptych (detail)c. 1334, Tempera on woodBaroncelli Chapel

GIOTTO di BondoneChrist Among the Doctors1310sFrescoNorth transept,

Lower Church,

San Francesco, Assisi

GIOTTO di BondoneAscension of Christc. 1300FrescoUpper Church,

San Francesco, Assisi

simone martini
Simone Martini

SIMONE MARTINIAltar of St Louis of Toulouse (detail)c. 1317Tempera on wood, 56 x 38 cmMuseo Nazionale di Capodimonte,

Naples

Blessed Agostino Novello Altarpiece1324Tempera on wood, 198 x 257 cmPinacoteca Nazionale, Siena

pietro and ambrogio lorenzetti
Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti

LORENZETTI, AmbrogioEffects of Good Government on the City Life (detail)1338-40FrescoPalazzo Pubblico, Siena

LORENZETTI, PietroBeata Umilta

Transport Bricks to the Monasteryc. 1341Oil on wood, 45 x 32 cmGalleria degli Uffizi, Florence

art in northern europe
Art in Northern Europe

UNKNOWN MASTER, BohemianVirgin Enthronedc. 1350Panel, 186 x 95 cmStaatliche Museen, Berlin

UNKNOWN MASTER,

BohemianSt Bartholomew

and St Thomas1395Tempera on wood, National Gallery,

Prague

limbourg brothers
Limbourg Brothers

LIMBOURG brothersLes très riches heures du Duc de Berryc. 1416, Illumination on vellumMusée Condé, Chantilly

late gothic architecture
Late Gothic Architecture

- Florence Cathedral

  • Duomo, Milan
  • Palazzo Publico, Siena
  • Doge’s Palace, Venice
  • Gloucester Cathedral
florence cathedral 1296 1462
Florence Cathedral1296 - 1462

Exterior view looking at facade,

with a glimpse of dome above

Overview of Dome

duomo milan begun 1386
Duomo, MilanBegun 1386

The main entrance portal

Pinnacles and flying buttresses

palazzo publico siena italy 1228 1309
Palazzo Publico, Siena, Italy1228 - 1309

Palazzo Pubblico at night.

Piazza Del Campo and Palazzo

Pubblico at dusk. Siena, Toscany, Italy

doge s palace venice 1309 to 1424
Doge’s Palace, Venice1309 to 1424

Photo, exterior overview, showing the palace

in context across water, with tower behind

Photo, facade bay and details

music ars nova
Music – Ars Nova

The Ars Nova In France

The rapid rise of polyphony in the 12th and 13th centuries

depended upon corresponding advances in style and notation.

It was an age of rapid invention. But once these innovations

had been transformed into usable techniques, composers

could concentrate on extracting the full potential of what had

been learned. This process of consolidation and refinement

was the task of the 14th century. Four major trends can be

discerned; first, increasing secularization; second, the growing

dominance of polyphony; third, the emergence of national

idioms and forms; and fourth, an increasing preoccupation

with musical technique.