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PA Mammals. RACCOON. Black-brown coat; bushy, ringed tail; black facial mask Dunk food in water before eating Omnivores – berries, insects, eggs, etc. Acute sense of touch on their feet Great climbers; come down at night for food Emerge to find food in winter. BLACK BEAR.

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PA Mammals


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    1. PA Mammals

    2. RACCOON • Black-brown coat; bushy, ringed tail; black facial mask • Dunk food in water before eating • Omnivores – berries, insects, eggs, etc. • Acute sense of touch on their feet • Great climbers; come down at night for food • Emerge to find food in winter

    3. BLACK BEAR • Largest animal hunted in Pa • 140-400 lbs (typically) • Glossy black coat, tan muzzle, may have white “V” on chest • Good sense of smell; poor vision • Find food mainly by scent • Largely vegetarian; will eat most anything • Of greatest danger are those accustomed to humans • Fatten in fall; hibernate in winter

    4. BAT • Only flying mammals • 9 species of bats in PA • Most common type in PA: Little Brown Bat • Insect eaters • Feed over water • Use echolocation • Fly mostly at night • Hibernate

    5. WOODCHUCK(groundhog) • One of PA’s most common mammals • Closely related to rodents such as squirrels and chipmunks • Dig burrows which are often seen as a nuisance or danger • 5-10 lbs; bristly 6” tail • Brown fur (no commercial value) • Dark brown or black feet • Food: vegetation • Sensory areas all near top of “chuck’s” head so it can stick just top of head out of burrow to check surroundings • Most time spent underground in burrows near edges of fields • Hibernate

    6. SQUIRRELS • Gray squirrel – most familiar • Rodents • Tail used for balance • Food: nuts, berries, buds • Most heavily harvested small game species • Others: red squirrel, flying squirrel, fox squirrel

    7. CHIPMUNK • Sm. Rodent • 8-10” / 2-4 oz. • Striped • Internal cheek pouches • Omnivores (bird eggs, nuts, seeds, worms, etc. • Store food in underground burrows • Young – blind & naked • Habitat: woods with stumps and logs

    8. MICE & VOLES • Small creatures • Base of food chain • Prefer vegetation, will eat eggs, insects, snails, etc. • Feed at night, active yr. round Deer Mouse

    9. Deer Mouse

    10. Red Backed Vole Meadow Vole

    11. Meadow Vole

    12. WOODRAT“pack rat” • Lives in remote, rocky habitats • Grayish-brown coat above, white below • Round ears, long whiskers, bulging eyes • Stockpile food & “treasures” (skulls, feathers, bottle caps, coins, rags, etc.)

    13. SHREW • Food: mainly insects (“Insectivore”) • Usually less than 5” • Light brown or gray coat • Look like mice BUT – shrews have 5 toes/foot and mice have 4 toes/foot (front) • Sharp, pointed dark stained teeth • Beadier eyes and pointier noses than mice • One species has poisonous saliva • Many species in PA - hard to tell apart • Very rapid metabolism (1,200 beats/min.) so starve to death easily

    14. RED & GRAY FOXES • Same family as dogs, coyotes and wolves • Sharp senses of sight, smell, hearing • Full, thick coat & bushy tails • Lighter underside • Gray fox only member of canine family that can climb trees • Food: small mammals & birds • Also scavengers

    15. EASTERN COYOTE • 45-55 lbs. • Blond, reddish-blond, black, dark brown • Yellow eyes • Yip, bark & howl • Nocturnal, but often hunt in a.m. • Food: deer, rabbits, woodchuck & birds • Most common in northern ½ of state

    16. COTTONTAIL RABBIT • Long-eared mammal • Brown above, white below • 2” white tail • Like to live in abandoned woodchuck burrows • Herbivores • Zigzag pattern used to avoid predators • Major source of food for other wildlife • Prefer brush piles and shrubs for cover

    17. VARYING HARE(snowshoe rabbit) • Varying refers to changes in pelt color • Not a true rabbit • Longer ears and larger furry, feet than a rabbit • Brown in summer • Light affects color change (glands) • Circles like a cottontail when chased • PA southernmost state for showshoes

    18. BOBCAT • Elusive • Also known as “lynx” or “wildcat” • Only feline predator in PA • Fierce fighter • Gray-brown fur with spots and bars • Lips, chin, belly are white • Fur extends out, downward from ears • “bobs” due to longer back legs • Strong swimmer and excellent climber • Food: small animals, injured deer • Live in mountains, deep forests and swamps

    19. WHITE-TAILED DEER • Holds white tail erect when running • Reddish or grayish brown • Fawns are spotted • Scent producing glands used to convey excitement, fear or mark territory • Color-blind • Bleat, grunt & whine • Males grow, shed antlers each year • Antler growth = food conditions • Covered in velvet in spring, summer • herbivores • Easily overpopulate; must be managed

    20. ELK • Lg. population in PA in early 1800’s • Member of deer family • Large, strong, muscular animals • Tawny brown or brownish-gray coat with darker neck, chest and legs • Whitish rump • Jump and swim well • Distinct bellowing mating call • Large antlers • Food: primarily graze • Only approx. 500 in PA

    21. OPOSSUM • Only marsupial on the continent • Name derived from word meaning “white animal” • Long snout, many sharp teeth, dark eyes, bare ears • Naked, tapering, scaly tail like a rats • Light gray coat with dark brown or black legs and feet • Great climbers (tails for gripping and balancing) • May fake death for minutes or hours • Food: omnivores (eat whatever they can find)