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Socialization and Motivation. Topic 6—October 6 Khurram Butt David Bell. Socialization and Motivation. “Traditional” and “modern” are neither incompatible nor internally consistent terms Argues that no single, uniform set of processes bring modernity Not simple dichotomies but

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socialization and motivation
Socialization and Motivation

Topic 6—October 6

Khurram Butt

David Bell

socialization and motivation2
Socialization and Motivation
  • “Traditional” and “modern” are neither incompatible nor internally consistent terms
  • Argues that no single, uniform set of processes bring modernity
  • Not simple dichotomies but
    • Heterogeneity and interpretations to be analyzed

Gusfield, Joseph (1971). Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change, in Political Modernization: A Reader, Claude Welch, ed. Belmost, CA: Duxbury Publishers, 47-62.

socialization and motivation3
Socialization and Motivation
  • The idea of change in developing societies as a linear movement from traditional past toward a modernized state
    • Involves several significant assumptions that are questionable
    • For example, the linear model assumes that existing institutions and values-tradition-impedes change and are obstacles to modernization

Gusfield, Joseph (1971). Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change, in Political Modernization: A Reader, Claude Welch, ed. Belmost, CA: Duxbury Publishers, 47-62.

socialization and motivation4
Socialization and Motivation
  • Explores the uses of tradition and modernity as explicit ideologies in the politics of developing nations
    • Primarily draws on India
  • Explains concepts of development and modernization as being generalized
    • The view that tradition and innovation are necessarily in conflict is overly abstract and unreal

Gusfield, Joseph (1971). Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change, in Political Modernization: A Reader, Claude Welch, ed. Belmost, CA: Duxbury Publishers, 47-62.

socialization and motivation5
Socialization and Motivation
  • Fallacies in the Assumptions of traditional-modern polarity
    • Developing societies have been static
    • Tradition is consistent
    • Tradition is homogeneous
    • Old is replaced with the new
    • Tradition and modern forms are always in conflict
    • Tradition and modern are mutually exclusive
    • Modernization weakens traditions
socialization and motivation6
Socialization and Motivation
  • Desire to be modern-desire to preserve tradition
    • These function as ideologies
    • Are not always in conflict
    • Modernization is often linked to an upsurge in traditionalism
    • Tradition may be changed, stretched and modified
  • For new elites of developing nations its not overcoming tradition but of finding ways to blend modernity and tradition
socialization and motivation7
Socialization and Motivation
  • In the past comparative public administration CPA
    • Creating an institutionalized knowledge base to aid in making better decisions
    • Tied to changing foreign assistance programs (USAID)
    • Provided models and frameworks
      • But few empirical conclusions on the appropriateness of systems and skills transfer
    • Formal deductive theory building has been demoted—
    • Focus moved from systems theory to practice
socialization and motivation8
Socialization and Motivation
  • World events have forced CPA to provide information for real management and policy problems
  • Foreign aid and comparative public administration
    • Alliance for Progress and New Directions—polar opposites in principle
      • In practice not much different
    • Whole systems transformation
    • Different views of development—the minority view: develop local capacity
    • New Directions-less presumptuous approach
socialization and motivation9
Socialization and Motivation
  • Insight into US foreign aid process
    • Process itself causes local problems
    • High energy of Alliance period moved to politicized bureaucratic maze by the end of New Directions period
  • The functionalist framework and other roadmaps
    • Broader insights into transitional or mixed societies
socialization and motivation10
Socialization and Motivation
  • Skeptism about size and results led to structural reform
    • Core government functions
      • Consistent with local political culture
  • Application and translation of existing theory into practice
      • Budgeting, HR management, intergovernmental relations
  • Funding is now multinational
maslow s theory of human motivation
Maslow’s Theory of Human Motivation

Hierarchy of needs

Physiological; safety; affection; esteem; self-actualization

Humans as ‘perpetually wanting animals’

Satisfaction of a lesser-order need gives rise to a higher-order need

Need dominating conscious behavior affects not only present but also future world-view

All behavior is determined but all behavior is not ‘motivated’

Motivations not sole ‘determinants’ of action

socialization and motivation12
Socialization and Motivation

How Maslow fits into our discourse

Influence on ‘structure’

Safety needs: need for undisrupted routine or rhythm, for a predictable, orderly world

Specific reference to children with incremental knowledge over time acting as remedy

Link to ‘isolated bureaucratic strata’ that give rise to ‘the unknown, the uncertain’?

Influence on ‘process’

Affection/Esteem needs: the ‘social’ side of relations; need to give and receive love, admiration, respect; one’s place in and belongingness to an affinity group

Link to inter-strata bureaucratic relations; bureaucracy-citizen relations, bureaucracy-state relations, etc.?

socialization and motivation13
Socialization and Motivation

The role of culture?

Motivations are not the sole determinants of action

‘Field’ determinants

Expressive versus coping behavior: personality versus goal-seeking

The function of state/bureaucracy?

‘Increased frustration tolerance through early-gratification’ versus ‘sheer habituation’

Interesting analogy of ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’ persons and their relationship with ‘society’

Good or ‘healthy’ society defined as one that permits man’s highest purposes to emerge by satisfying all his prepotent basic needs.

lu wenfu man from a peddler s family
Lu Wenfu: Man from a Peddler’s Family

Story set in the Socialist Chinese context; capitalism seen as root of all evils

Perhaps an illustration of the hierarchy of needs as they play out in two people’s lives – Mr. Gao and Zhu Yuanda

“At that time I didn’t think Zhu Yuanda was doing anything dishonest or that he was putting his profits ahead of everything else. I felt that the reason I wanted to correct more exercise books and he wanted to sell more wonton was because our lives were so difficult.” (Pg. 199)

lu wenfu man from a peddler s family15
Lu Wenfu: Man from a Peddler’s Family

The ‘struggle’ against capitalism and the ‘cultural revolution’ - an enforced pursuit of a higher order need at the expense of other prepotent needs?

The pre-determined needs of the ‘whole’ seen as superseding the needs of the ‘individual’

Tools of gratifying prepotent needs seen as symbols of corruption

socialization and motivation synthesis
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • A society’s way of providing for and valuing individual interaction is reflected in and shaped by its bureaucracy
    • 18th century Europe family structures important to training and recruitment
      • First born socialized to follow father into administration
      • Younger sons –opportunity for self selection
    • Great Britian—old patterns of deference in society
    • United States—impersonal rules of organizations
socialization and motivation synthesis17
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • A society’s way of providing for and valuing individual interaction is reflected in and shapes its beaucracy
    • Relations defined by establishing how people relate to work—organziation
    • Dehumanizing—people become cases, employees become functionaries
    • Employees become empowered
    • Citizens become empowered as consumers
socialization and motivation synthesis18
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs helps us understand individual’s position in and interaction with society
    • Humans as ‘perpetually wanting’ animals: satisfaction of lesser-order need gives rise to a higher-order need
  • Need dominating conscious behavior affects not only present but also future world-view
socialization and motivation synthesis19
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • Maslow’s model: implications on structure of bureaucracy
    • Safety needs: need for undisrupted routine or rhythm, for a predictable, orderly world
  • Maslow’s model: implications on processes of bureaucracy
    • Affection/Esteem needs: the ‘social’ side of relations; need to give and receive admiration, respect; belongingness to an affinity group
socialization and motivation synthesis20
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • The values and traditions of society dynamically interact with the developments of modernity
    • Culture is dynamic- a mixture of old and new over time
    • Modernity and traditional values often build off each other—rather new weakening the old
    • Prior bureaucratic structures inculcates new participants and motivates decision making
      • Politicization and affirmative action/representation in South Africa
    • CPA frameworks provided insights into many cultural, sociological and institutional variables impacting administrative behavior of transitional societies.
socialization and motivation synthesis21
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • Motivation for action and performance is shaped by the interactive environments of elected officials, citizens, and bureaucracies—which overlap
    • Elected officials—citizens disappointed in quality of bureaucracy and cost
    • Bureaucracy—burdened by a system of antiquated, ineffective rules and considerations (political favors, ineffective implementation of representation)
    • Citizens—responds to promises of elected officials to hold bureaucracy accountable
socialization and motivation synthesis22
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • Creating ‘entrepreneurialism’ in civil service through reforms
    • Bureaucratic paradigm (based on scientific mgmt) seen as ineffective
    • Taking an ‘inductive’ view: actual examples of success (like Minnesota’s STEP program) driving theory
    • Synergies among accountability, delegation and creativity identified
    • ‘Customer’ driven focus and introduction of ‘market forces’ within government
socialization and motivation synthesis23
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • The connection of performance and finance impacts the motivation for certain approaches and action
    • South Africa—ineffective bureaucracies and significant budget problems impacted decision making and the issues faced by elected officials and bureaucrats
    • Budget reform in the United States
    • U.S. foreign aid influenced development
      • Local problems in public sector management
      • Constraints upon develop results through transfer of Western systems and skills
socialization and motivation synthesis24
Socialization and Motivation Synthesis
  • Various definitions of ‘development’ have driven interventions in developing countries
    • Development as ‘modernization’
    • Development as ‘centralization of power and ability to rule’
    • Development as ‘creation of alternatives, preferences and choices for the public’
  • Development mgmt/admin seen as off-shoot of int’l and comparative public administration
slide25

Socialization and Motivation

Heady

Culture and Bureaucracy

Guess

Development Administration

Jreisat

Development Management

Mydral

Management and Governance

Maslow

Socialization and HRD

Lu Wenfu

Collective Socialization

Orwell

Social Structures and Development Management

Armstrong

Recruitment and Socialization

Barzely

Osborne and Gaebler

Public Sector Reform

Gusfield

Culture and Socialization

Picard

Behavior and Institutional Failure

Hummel

Bureaucratic Dysfunction

Warren

Authoritarianism and Corruption

socialization and motivation26
Socialization and Motivation
  • Gusfield, Joseph (1971). Tradition and Modernity: Misplaced Polarities in the Study of Social Change, in Political Modernization: A Reader, Claude Welch, ed. Belmost, CA: Duxbury Publishers, 47-62.
  • Guess, George M., (1998) Comparative and International Administration, in Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreeth, and Gerald J. Miller, Hand Book of Public Administration: Public Administration and Public Policy. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 535-555
  • Heady, Ferrel 2001. Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective, 6th Edition. New York: Marcel Dekker. , 221-273.
  • Picard, Louis A (2005). The State of the State: Institutional Transformation, Capacity and Political Change in South Africa. Johannesburg: Wits University Press., 292-353.