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Nonrenewable Energy Resources Solar Ponds Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Solar Ponds Working fluid (water, or propane, ammonia, freon (low boiling point) heat exchanger from surface water/ works water into steam exhaust heat back into liquid volume by factor 1000

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nonrenewable energy resources

Nonrenewable Energy Resources

Solar Ponds

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

solar ponds
Solar Ponds
  • Working fluid (water, or propane, ammonia, freon (low boiling point)
  • heat exchanger from surface water/ works water into steam
  • exhaust heat back into liquid
    • volume by factor 1000
    • compared to if pumping gas into system
  • 33% efficient
  • 1000MW needs 3000MW boiler
    • 2000MW are waste heat
solar ponds5
Solar Ponds
  • Capture solar radiation/ store it almost 100 C
  • water in ponds are source of storage for heat from sun - allows it to maintain original heat
  • specific heat of water
saline solar ponds
Saline Solar Ponds
  • Salt water
  • better capacity for heat
  • near inland saline seas or lakes
  • ample sunlight
  • produce electricity from heat stored in layers of increasing concentrations of salt
saline solar ponds8
Saline Solar Ponds
  • Heat builds up during day in saltier/ denser bottom layer
  • hot brine is pumped out
  • produces steam/spins turbines to generate electricity
  • returned to pond to be reused
saline solar ponds9
Saline Solar Ponds
  • Experiment: California and Australia
  • Experiment: Dead Sea
    • closed 1989: $
freshwater solar ponds
Freshwater Solar Ponds
  • Heat water and space
  • shallow hole dug; concrete
  • many large, black, plastic bags filled with cm of water placed in whole
  • fiberglass insulation panels
freshwater solar ponds11
Freshwater Solar ponds
  • Fiberglass allows heat in, locked in on earth
  • water reaches highest temp, computer turns on and has it pumped to tanks for distribution
solar ponds12
Solar Ponds
  • Require no energy storage nor backup system
  • air pollution
  • moderate net energy yield
  • freshwater solar ponds: any sunny area
    • moderate construction/operation $
    • development/research, 3-4% of electricity w/10 years
ocean thermal energy conversion
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
  • Generating electricity from the difference between ocean temperatures
  • cold = 2000’ below surface
  • difference of 40 F for net power to be generated
the basic process
The Basic Process
  • Working fluid (water, ammonia, propane, freon - low boiling point) runs through a heat exchanger
  • gets heat from surface water turns fluid into steam
  • exhaust heat back into liquid decreasing volume by factor of 1000
the basic process continued
The Basic Process Continued
  • Work done by pump is down by 1000 compared to having to pump steam directly back into system
  • overall efficiency is 33%
  • a 1000 MW plant requires 3000MW boiler and 2000MW are given off as waste heat
the basic processes 3 types
The Basic Processes: 3 Types
  • Closed-cycle system
  • Open-cycle system
  • Hybrid-cycle
    • still in theoretical designs
    • basically use both to optimize electricity
closed cycle system
Closed-Cycle System
  • Heat moved from warm surface sea water heats a working fluid (ammonia (78), propane, freon) to vapor
  • expanding vapor drives a turbine attached to generator electricity
  • cold sea H2O passes through condenser w/vaporized working fluid turns the vapor back into liquid to be reused
open cycle system
Open-Cycle System
  • Warm surface water
  • vaporizes in a near vacuum at surface water temps
  • expanding vapor drives low-pressure turbine attached to generator: elec.
  • Vapor lost salt/almost pure freshwater
  • condensed by exposure to cold water from deep
open cycle system20
Open-Cycle System
  • Avoid direct contact
    • Condensed water can be used for drinking, irrigation, aquaculture
  • Deliberate direct contact
    • produces more elec., but the vapor is mixed with cold water and the discharge water is salty- mixture returned to ocean
  • process constant by continuous supply of warm surface water
open cycle system advantages
Open-Cycle System Advantages
  • Efficiently removes gases
  • decreases cost
  • eliminates some potentially damaging elements discharge into the atmosphere
  • 20 times energy savings over all other devices
problems of otec
Problems of OTEC
  • Cost:
    • plant very $ because technology not advanced enough
    • 1KW/hour: 200 - 400 1500
  • Technological:
    • no existing technology
    • how to deliver power?
    • power line in ocean: catch 22
      • dangerous, but necessary
problems
Problems
  • Technological
    • H2, O2- large quantities make it unreasonable
    • 10% of energy
      • for H2, 30 large shiploads/day or .3 million tons to be piped
  • Legal
    • built outside US and continental limits
      • what about new laws and protection
problems24
Problems
  • Location
    • between 23 North latitude/23 South latitude
    • depths of 200’ but too much space
    • Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Florida, California
      • nat. beauty; plants undesireable
biological problems
Biological Problems
  • Metallic corrosion:
    • metallic elements into water
      • copper = ecological damage, aluminum, titanium - plastic, still being developed
  • Ocean water dump:
    • water brought from bottom, in temp and press (-) affects on creatures brought up
    • may have good effects
biological problems27
Biological Problems
  • Toxic closed-system fluid leaks
  • if ammonia leaks in small bits, not harmful, but devastating in large spill
  • Biocides
    • biofouling
    • chlorine used around plant
      • same as above
benefits
Benefits
  • 2010 10% energy to world; will last billions of years
  • not dependent on sunlight
  • could handle all demands
  • weather irrelevant
  • produce 750MW
    • at least 3/4 as powerful as regular coal plant