main characteristics of anthropology peoples and cultures of europe n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 109

Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 152 Views
  • Uploaded on

Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe. The Fields of General Anthropology. archaeology physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology) socio / cultural anthropology linguistic anthropology. www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html. 1. 2. 3. 4.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Main Characteristics of Anthropology Peoples and Cultures of Europe' - sandra_john


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
main characteristics of anthropology peoples and cultures of europe
Main

Characteristics of Anthropology

Peoples and Cultures of Europe

the fields of general anthropology

The Fields of General Anthropology

archaeology

physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology)

socio / cultural anthropology

linguistic anthropology

slide4

1

2

3

4

www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html

main characteristics

Main Characteristics

culture as a primary concept

comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

main characteristics1

Main Characteristics

culture as a primary concept

comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

main characteristics2

Main Characteristics

“culture”

learned

shared

transmitted from generation to generation

based on symbols

integrated

main characteristics3

Main Characteristics

“culture”

is not inherited

(i.e., is not biological)

is not “instinct”

main characteristics4

Main Characteristics

“cultures”

are integrated

interact and change

the concept of culture

The Concept of Culture

Microculture

a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions

local cultures

slide11

The Concept of Culture

  • microcultures can include ethnic groups within nations
    • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
    • e.g., Irish “Travellers”
      • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
    • e.g., Basques
    • e.g., Kurds
    • e.g., Australian Aboriginals
slide12

Microculture

a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures such as ethnic groups in localized regions

local cultures

The Concept of Culture

  • Macroculture
    • a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking that crosses local boundaries, such as transnational culture and global culture
slide13

The Concept of Culture

  • macrocultures can include groups across nations
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
    • e.g., ? Al Qaeda
main characteristics5

Main Characteristics

culture as a primary concept

comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

main characteristics6

Main Characteristics

comparative method

as a major approach to the study of human behavior

the comparative method compares things

main characteristics7

Main Characteristics

comparative method

One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan

(University of Chicago)

  • “Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison”
    • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)
main characteristics8

Main Characteristics

comparative method

One form of comparative method was pioneered by Fred Eggan

(University of Chicago)

  • “Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison”
    • American Anthropologist, 56:743-61 (1954)
main characteristics9

Main Characteristics

comparative method

Other methods . . .

compare things regionally

in an attempt to understand process

main characteristics10

Main Characteristics

comparative method

Other methods . . .

compare things regionally

in an attempt to understand process

main characteristics11

Main Characteristics

the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization

maize – Mexico

wheat – Turkey

rice – China

manioc – Brazil

millet – Africa

main characteristics12

Main Characteristics

the comparative method compares things, for e.g., process of domestication / civilization

maize – Mexico

wheat – Turkey

rice – China

manioc – Brazil

millet – Africa

slide22

Origin of Domestication for Selected Plants

wheat

10,500 ybp

rice

7,000 ybp

maize

4,200 ybp

millet

4,000 ybp

manioc

4,200 ybp

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 342.

slide23

Chapter 14

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed.

“Food Production”

A Biocultural Revolution

Neolithic

Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

slide24

Neolithic

Tehuacán

Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

slide25
Tehuacán Valley, Puebla, Mexico

maize

4,200 ybp

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 8th Ed., p. 432.

slide26

Neolithic

Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

slide27
Early Neolithic sites

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 349.

slide28

Neolithic

Time line for Ch. 14 Food Production.

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 333.

slide29
MehrgarhOne of the earliest Neolithic settlements of southern Asia, Pakistan

Understanding Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 9th Ed., p. 352.

main characteristics13

Main Characteristics

culture as a primary concept

comparative methods as major approaches to the study of human behavior development and structure

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary goal of anthropology

the fields of general anthropology1

The Fields of General Anthropology

archaeology

physical or biological anthropology (bioanthropology)

socio / cultural anthropology

linguistic anthropology

slide32

The main fields

of general anthropology

1

2

3

4

http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html

glossary

Glossary

ethnography

scientific description of cultures

(“a portrait of a people”)

glossary1

Glossary

ethno – graphy

graph from the Greek, meaning something “written” or “drawn”

glossary2

Glossary

ethnology

comparative study of cultures

glossary3

Glossary

ethology

scientific study of the social behavior of animals, especially in their natural environments

note that there is no n in ethology

glossary4

Glossary

primatology

scientific study of the social behavior of primates, especially (non-human primates) apes and monkeys

glossary5

Glossary

“primates”

prosimians (“pre-monkeys”)

monkeys

apes

and also humans

glossary6

Glossary

“non-human primates”

prosimians (“pre-monkeys”)

monkeys

apes

glossary7

Glossary

“primatologist”

usually refers to one who studies the behavior and social lives of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, etc.

e.g., Jane Goodall, Diane Fossy,

Birute Galdikas-Brindamour

main characteristics14

Main Characteristics

culture as a primary concept

comparative method as major approach to the study of human behavior

holism or the study of "humankind" as a whole, as a primary theoretical goal of anthropology

fieldwork as a primary research technique (“participant observation”)

glossary8

Glossary

Other important terms include . . .

glossary9

Glossary

ethnocentrism

judging other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture

glossary10

Glossary

cultural relativism

the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another

glossary11

Glossary

absolute cultural relativism

the perspective that says a person from one culture should not question the rightness or wrongness of behavior or ideas in other cultures because that would be ethnocentric

glossary12

Glossary

absolute cultural relativism

World War II Holocaust

arranged “underage” marriage

female genital mutilations

withholding of medical treatment of children for religious reasons

polygyny. . . .

slide53

http://www.dailytexanonline.com/news/2004/03/26/StateLocal/Polygamists.Might.Be.Building.In.Texas-642621.shtmlhttp://www.dailytexanonline.com/news/2004/03/26/StateLocal/Polygamists.Might.Be.Building.In.Texas-642621.shtml

slide56

http://www.presstelegram.com/Stories/0,1413,204%257E23187%257E2235392,00.htmlhttp://www.presstelegram.com/Stories/0,1413,204%257E23187%257E2235392,00.html

glossary13

Glossary

critical cultural relativism

offers an alternative view that poses questions about cultural practices and ideas in terms of who accepts them and why, and who they might be harming or helping

multiple cultural worlds

Multiple Cultural Worlds

people live in

multiple cultural worlds

multiple cultural worlds1

multiple cultural worlds

class

race

ethnicity

gender

age

institutions

slide61
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo, Nan)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide62
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo, Nan)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide63

Paul Buffalo

Meditating

Medicine

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/Intro-Temp2.html

slide64

Sharon Gmelch

Nan: The Life of an Irish Traveling Woman, Revised Edition.

Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1991.

(ISBN: 0881336025)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#Nan

slide65

This was earlier advocated by:

Bronislow Malinowski

Edward Sapir(“Sapir-Whorf” hypothesis)

Margaret Mead

slide66
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide68

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1604/video/Life_Chances.html#titlehttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1604/video/Life_Chances.html#title

slide69
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
classics in anthropology
“Classics" in Anthropology

1930 Tepoztlan, a Mexican Village: A Study of Folk Life

Chicago: University of Chicago Press

1941 Folk Culture of Yucatan

Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Robert Redfield

classics in the anthropology of europe1
“Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe

Lewis - Refield debate

  • Robert Redfield
    • Tepoztlan, a Mexican Village: A Study of Folk Life
  • Oscar Lewis
    • Life in a Mexican Village: Tepoztlan Restudied
slide72

Inis Beag

Gaelic: "Little Island"

John C. Messenger

Inis Beag: Isle of Ireland.

Long Grove: IL: Waveland Press, 1983.

(ISBN: 0881330515)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#InisBeag

slide73
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide74
. . Man of Aran

(77 min, 1934, B&W)

  • Robert J. Flaherty,
  • Colman “Tiger” King,
  • Maggie Dirrane, and
  • Michael Dirrane
slide75
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide76
some areas are “officially”

anthropological

“cultural areas” . . .

slide78

Parman, Susan.

Europe in the Anthropological

Imagination.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall,

1998.

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#title

slide79

“Middle America”

(geological)

“Mesoamerica”

(cultural)

slide80
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck)
  • the community
  • a region
  • “culture area”
  • a culture / “subculture”
    • Chicanos
    • “Irish”
    • “Irish Travellers” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Rom” (“Gypsies”)
    • “Basques”
    • Catalans
slide82
Unites of analysis may include ethnic groups within and across nations
  • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
  • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
  • e.g., Irish “Travellers”
    • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
  • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
  • e.g., Basques
slide83

Mark Kurlansky

The Basque History of the World.

NY: Penguin Books, 1999.

(ISBN: 0140298517)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#BasqueHistory

slide84
“units of analysis” may also include:
  • a nation

(“national character studies”)

  • the item or action itself

(including “processes”)

  • a “cultural metaphor”
slide85

Elizabeth L. Krause

A Crisis of Births:

Population Politics and Family-Making in Italy

Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth, 2005.

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#CrisisofBirths

slide86
“units of analysis” may also include:
  • a nation

(“national character studies”)

  • the item or action itself

(including “processes”)

  • a “cultural metaphor”
slide87

stratification

  • internal and transnational migration
  • “transnationalism”
  • networks
  • honor / shame values
  • patron-client relationships
  • literacy
  • “we” vs. “other”
  • rural / urban continuum
  • demography / population
  • gender
  • ethnicity
  • nationalism
  • globalization
  • “development”
  • social / cultural change
  • decision-making
  • peasants
  • urbanism / urbanization

Parman's classic picks-- Tony Galt

slide88

Cod:

A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World

NY: Penguin Books, 1998

www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#Cod

slide89
“units of analysis” may also include:
  • a nation

(“national character studies”)

  • the item or action itself

(including “processes”)

  • a “cultural metaphor”
slide91

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#texthttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text

gannon s european cultural metaphors include
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 12. Irish Conversations

Ch. 17. The Traditional British House

Ch. 21. The Italian Opera

Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace

Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet

Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight

Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

slide94
and the

Units of Analysis

Can be combined

slide95

Italy

demography

Elizabeth L. Krause

A Crisis of Births:

Population Politics and Family-Making in Italy

Belmont, CA: Thompson Wadsworth, 2005.

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#CrisisofBirths

the three major contemporary debates1

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Individual Agency vs. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

the three major contemporary debates2

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism

Individual Agency vs. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

the three major contemporary debates3

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Ideationismvs. Cultural Materialism

Individual Agency vs. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

the three major contemporary debates4

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism

Ipeace. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

Peace

Justice

Security

Freedom

Honor

God / Allah . . .

slide101

http://rawstory.com/news/afp/Bush_says_Iraq_war_about_al_Qaeda_07242007.htmlhttp://rawstory.com/news/afp/Bush_says_Iraq_war_about_al_Qaeda_07242007.html

the three major contemporary debates5

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism

Individual Agency vs. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

slide104

Cultural Materialism

Marvin Harris.

The Rise of Anthropological Theory:

A History of Theories of Culture,

Updated Edition.

Lanham, MD: Altamira Press, 2000.

slide105

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_materialism_%28anthropology%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_materialism_%28anthropology%29

the three major contemporary debates6

the three major contemporary debates

Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism(“nature vs. nurture”) (“learned vs. inherited”)

Ideationism vs. Cultural Materialism

Individual Agency vs. Structuralism(“free will” vs. “power structures”)

slide108

www.wenatcheeworld.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080122/FOOD/373497927/1030/rss1030www.wenatcheeworld.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080122/FOOD/373497927/1030/rss1030

slide109

www.wenatcheeworld.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080122/FOOD/373497927/1030/rss1030www.wenatcheeworld.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080122/FOOD/373497927/1030/rss1030