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  1. Peoples and Cultures of Europe units of analysis / cultural metaphors

  2. “units of analysis” may include: • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo) • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later) • the community • a region • a culture • “Irish” • “Chinese” • “Mexicans” • “Bedouins”

  3. “units of analysis” may include: • a nation (“national character studies”) • the item or action itself (including “processes”) • a “cultural metaphor” (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

  4. a cultural metaphor (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors) as a Unit of Analysis

  5. an important influence on American interest in European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace Latin American influences back to Spain Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14

  6. an important influence onAmerican interest in European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace Latin American influences back to Spain Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14

  7. “units of analysis” may also include: • a nation (“national character studies”) • the item or action itself (including “processes”) • a “cultural metaphor” (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

  8. Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude Ch. 17. The Traditional British House Ch. 21. The Italian Opera Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

  9. http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#texthttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text

  10. Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude Ch. 6. The Turkish Coffehouse Ch. 8. The Polish Village Church Ch. 10. The German Symphony Ch. 11. The Swedish Stuga Ch. 12. Irish Conversations Ch. 14. The Danish Christmas Luncheon Ch. 15. French Wine . . .

  11. www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/Ireland.html#title

  12. http://www.carn.com/IrishTales.htm

  13. Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude Ch. 17. The Traditional British House Ch. 21. The Italian Opera Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

  14. Cultural Metaphors • cultural metaphors can be derived for ethnic groups within and across nations • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) • e.g., Irish “Travellers” • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies” • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey) • e.g., Basques

  15. Cultural Metaphors • cultural metaphors can be derivedfor ethnic groups within and across nations • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa) • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) • e.g., Irish “Travellers” • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies” • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey) • e.g., Basques

  16. Mark Kurlansky The Basque History of the World. NY: Penguin Books, 1999. (ISBN: 0140298517) http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#BasqueHistory

  17. Cultural Metaphors • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture • applies to a group, but not to every individual within it

  18. Cultural Metaphors • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture • because a good amount of evidence suggests that there are commonalities across regional, racial, and ethnic groups within each of them that can be captured effectively by cultural metaphors

  19. Cultural Metaphors • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28 metaphors (13 of the 28 are from Europe) • there are approximately 200 nations in the world • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)

  20. Cultural Metaphors • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28 metaphors (13 of the 28 are from Europe) • REM: there are approximately 200 nations in the world • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)

  21. Communication Ken Livingston, mayor of London England, indicated that there were over 300 languages spoken in London. (Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)

  22. Communication How many languages are spoken in St. Paul Minnesota ?

  23. Culture Counts and it counts quit a bit

  24. Constructing Cultural Metaphors • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck • Edward T. Hall • Geert Hofstede • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .

  25. Constructing Cultural Metaphors • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck • Edward T. Hall • Geert Hofstede • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .

  26. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • religion • early socialization and family structure • small group behavior • public behavior • leisure pursuits and interests

  27. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • total Lifestyle • work / leisure / home and time allocations to each of them • aural space • the degree to which members of a society react negatively to high noise levels • roles and status of different members of a society

  28. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • holidays and ceremonies • greeting behavior • humor

  29. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • language • oral and written communication

  30. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • non-oral communication • body language • kinesics (motion) • proxemics (space)

  31. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • sports • as a reflection of cultural values • political structure of a society • the educational system of a society

  32. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • traditions and the degree to which the established order is emphasized • history of a society • but only as it reflects cultural mind-sets, or the manner in which its members think, feel, and act • not a detailed history

  33. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • food and eating behavior

  34. Cultural Metaphors include . . . • social class structure • rate of technological and cultural change • organization of and perspective on work • such as a society’s commitment to the work ethic, superior-subordinate relationships, and so on • any other categories that are appropriate

  35. A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation • more specificity • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages

  36. Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of Emotions (p. 12)

  37. A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation • more specificity • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages

  38. A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation • more specificity • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages

  39. Emics / Etics emics • from “phonemics” • viewing a culture from the inside etics • from “phonetics” • viewing a culture from the outside more on the “emics” and “etics” later

  40. “Four-Stage Model” One variable of Gannon’s “Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

  41. “Four-Stage Model” One variable of Gannon’s “Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

  42. “Four-Stage Model” Another variable of Gannon’s “Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

  43. “Four-Stage Model” Another variable of Gannon’s “Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

  44. Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of Emotions (p. 12) More on the “Four-Stage Model” later, time permitting

  45. Cultural Metaphors “Metaphors are not stereotypes” – Martin J. Gannon Why?

  46. Geert Hofstede (1991) • IBM study demonstrated that national culture explained 50% of the differences in attitudes in IBM’s 53 countries

  47. “Given such studies, it seems that culture influences between 25% and 50% of our attitudes, whereas other aspects of workforce diversity, such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and age, account for the remainder of these attitudinal differences.”

  48. “Given such studies, it seems that culture influences between 25% and 50% of our attitudes, whereas other aspects of workforce diversity, such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and age, account for the remainder of these attitudinal differences.”

  49. “Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key cultural value, he or she is not even aware of the violation, and no one brings the matter to his or her attention.” • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is frequently impossible to rectify it • and it may well take several months to realize that polite rejections really signify isolation and banishment