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Peoples and Cultures of Europe units of analysis / cultural metaphors “units of analysis” may include: one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo ) the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later) the community a region a culture “Irish” “Chinese” “Mexicans” “Bedouins” “units of analysis” may include:

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peoples and cultures of europe

Peoples and Cultures of Europe

units of analysis / cultural metaphors

slide2
“units of analysis” may include:
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region
  • a culture
    • “Irish”
    • “Chinese”
    • “Mexicans”
    • “Bedouins”
slide3
“units of analysis” may include:
  • a nation

(“national character studies”)

  • the item or action itself

(including “processes”)

  • a “cultural metaphor”

(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

slide4
a cultural metaphor

(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

as a

Unit of Analysis

slide5
an important influence on American interest in European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace Latin American influences back to Spain

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14

slide6
an important influence onAmerican interest in European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace Latin American influences back to Spain

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological Imagination, pp. 11 - 14

slide8
“units of analysis” may also include:
  • a nation

(“national character studies”)

  • the item or action itself

(including “processes”)

  • a “cultural metaphor”

(analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

gannon s european cultural metaphors include
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 17. The Traditional British House

Ch. 21. The Italian Opera

Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace

Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet

Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight

Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

slide10

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#texthttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text

gannon s european cultural metaphors include11
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 6. The Turkish Coffehouse

Ch. 8. The Polish Village Church

Ch. 10. The German Symphony

Ch. 11. The Swedish Stuga

Ch. 12. Irish Conversations

Ch. 14. The Danish Christmas Luncheon

Ch. 15. French Wine . . .

gannon s european cultural metaphors include14
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 17. The Traditional British House

Ch. 21. The Italian Opera

Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace

Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet

Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight

Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

cultural metaphors
Cultural Metaphors
  • cultural metaphors can be derived for ethnic groups within and across nations
    • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
    • e.g., Irish “Travellers”
      • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
    • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
    • e.g., Basques
cultural metaphors16
Cultural Metaphors
  • cultural metaphors can be derivedfor ethnic groups within and across nations
    • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa; Ojibwa)
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
    • e.g., Irish “Travellers”
      • sometimes incorrectly called “Gypsies”
    • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
    • e.g., Basques
slide17

Mark Kurlansky

The Basque History of the World.

NY: Penguin Books, 1999.

(ISBN: 0140298517)

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/cetexts.html#BasqueHistory

cultural metaphors18
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture
  • applies to a group, but not to every individual within it
cultural metaphors19
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture
    • because a good amount of evidence suggests that there are commonalities across regional, racial, and ethnic groups within each of them that can be captured effectively by cultural metaphors
cultural metaphors20
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture
    • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28 metaphors

(13 of the 28 are from Europe)

    • there are approximately 200 nations in the world
      • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)
cultural metaphors21
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or national culture
    • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28 metaphors

(13 of the 28 are from Europe)

    • REM: there are approximately 200 nations in the world
      • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)
communication
Communication

Ken Livingston, mayor of London England,

indicated that there were over 300

languages spoken in London.

(Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)

communication23
Communication

How many languages

are spoken in

St. Paul Minnesota ?

slide24
Culture Counts

and it counts quit a bit

constructing cultural metaphors
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
constructing cultural metaphors26
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
cultural metaphors include
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • religion
  • early socialization and family structure
  • small group behavior
  • public behavior
  • leisure pursuits and interests
cultural metaphors include28
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • total Lifestyle
    • work / leisure / home and time allocations to each of them
  • aural space
    • the degree to which members of a society react negatively to high noise levels
  • roles and status of different members of a society
cultural metaphors include29
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • holidays and ceremonies
  • greeting behavior
  • humor
cultural metaphors include30
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • language
    • oral and written communication
cultural metaphors include31
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • non-oral communication
    • body language
      • kinesics (motion)
      • proxemics (space)
cultural metaphors include32
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • sports
    • as a reflection of cultural values
  • political structure of a society
  • the educational system of a society
cultural metaphors include33
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • traditions and the degree to which the established order is emphasized
  • history of a society
    • but only as it reflects cultural mind-sets, or the manner in which its members think, feel, and act
    • not a detailed history
cultural metaphors include34
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • food and eating behavior
cultural metaphors include35
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • social class structure
  • rate of technological and cultural change
  • organization of and perspective on work
    • such as a society’s commitment to the work ethic, superior-subordinate relationships, and so on
  • any other categories that are appropriate
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding38
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding39
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages
emics etics
Emics / Etics

emics

  • from “phonemics”
  • viewing a culture from the inside

etics

  • from “phonetics”
  • viewing a culture from the outside

more on the “emics” and “etics” later

four stage model
“Four-Stage Model”

One variable of Gannon’s

“Four-Stage Model”

is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

four stage model42
“Four-Stage Model”

One variable of Gannon’s

“Four-Stage Model”

is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

four stage model43
“Four-Stage Model”

Another variable of Gannon’s

“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

four stage model44
“Four-Stage Model”

Another variable of Gannon’s

“Four-Stage Model” is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

fig 1 1 process goals and expression of emotions p 1245
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of Emotions (p. 12)

More on the “Four-Stage Model” later, time permitting

cultural metaphors46
Cultural Metaphors

“Metaphors

are not stereotypes”

– Martin J. Gannon

Why?

slide47
Geert Hofstede

(1991)

  • IBM study demonstrated that national culture explained 50% of the differences in attitudes in IBM’s 53 countries
slide48
“Given such studies, it seems that culture influences between 25% and 50% of our attitudes, whereas other aspects of workforce diversity, such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and age, account for the remainder of these attitudinal differences.”
slide49
“Given such studies, it seems that culture influences between 25% and 50% of our attitudes, whereas other aspects of workforce diversity, such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and age, account for the remainder of these attitudinal differences.”
slide50
“Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key cultural value, he or she is not even aware of the violation, and no one brings the matter to his or her attention.”
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize that polite rejections really signify isolation and banishment
slide51
“Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key cultural value, he or she is not even aware of the violation, and no one brings the matter to his or her attention.”
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize that polite rejections really signify isolation and banishment

including

proxemics

kenisics

slide52
“Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key cultural value, he or she is not even aware of the violation, and no one brings the matter to his or her attention.”
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize that polite rejections really signify isolation and banishment
slide53
“Even genuinely

small cultural mistakes can have enormous consequences.”

slide54
“. . . knowing a country’s language, although clearly helpful, is no guarantee of understanding its cultural mindset, and some of the most difficult problems have been created by individuals who have a high level of fluency but a low level of cultural understanding.”
slide55
“. . . knowing a country’s language, although clearly helpful, is no guarantee of understanding its cultural mindset, and some of the most difficult problems have been created by individuals who have a high level of fluency but a low level of cultural understanding.”
slide56
“Moreover,

members of a culture tend to assume that highly fluent visitors know the customs and rules of behavior, and these visitors are judged severely when violations occur.”

cultural metaphors57
Cultural Metaphors
  • Understanding Global Cultures describes a method for understanding easily and quickly the cultural mind-set of a nation and comparing it to other nations . . .
cultural metaphors58
Cultural Metaphors
  • Understanding Global Cultures describes a method for understanding easily and quickly the cultural mind-set of a nation and comparing it to other nations . . .

metaphorical analysis

cultural metaphors59
Cultural Metaphors

wherein

the unit of analysis is

the metaphor

a four stage model of cross cultural understanding60
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages
cultural metaphors61
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves identifying some phenomenon, activity, or institution of a nation’s culture that all or most of its members consider to be very important and with which they identify closely
    • the characteristics of the metaphor then become the basis for describing and understanding the essential features of the society
cultural metaphors62
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves identifying some phenomenon, activity, or institution of a nation’s culture that all or most of its members consider to be very important and with which they identify closely
    • the characteristics of the metaphor then become the basis for describing and understanding the essential features of the society
cultural metaphors63
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves identifying some phenomenon, activity, or institution of a nation’s culture that all or most of its members consider to be very important and with which they identify closely
    • the characteristics of the metaphor then become the basis for describing and understanding the essential features of the society
cultural metaphors64
Cultural Metaphors
  • each metaphor is a guide or map that helps the foreigner understand quickly what members of a society consider very important
    • but it is only a starting point against which we can compare our own experiences and through which we can start to understand the seeming contradictions pervasive in most, if not all, societies
cultural metaphors65
Cultural Metaphors
  • each metaphor is a guide or map that helps the foreigner understand quickly what members of a society consider very important
    • but it is only a starting point against which we can compare our own experiences and through which we can start to understand the seeming contradictions pervasive in most, if not all, societies
cultural metaphors66
Cultural Metaphors
  • Gannon’s book describes

a dominant,

and perhaps the dominant,

metaphor for each society

    • but other metaphors may also be suitable
gannon s european cultural metaphors include67
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 6. The Turkish Coffehouse

Ch. 8. The Polish Village Church

Ch. 10. The German Symphony

Ch. 11. The Swedish Stuga

Ch. 12. Irish Conversations

Ch. 14. The Danish Christmas Luncheon

Ch. 15. French Wine . . .

gannon s european cultural metaphors include68
Gannon’sEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude

Ch. 17. The Traditional British House

Ch. 21. The Italian Opera

Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace

Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet

Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight

Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

constructing cultural metaphors69
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
constructing cultural metaphors70
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
constructing cultural metaphors71
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
    • note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of six dimensions
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the nature of people, that is, are people good, bad, or a mixture?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “existential postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck73
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the nature of people, that is, are people good, bad, or a mixture?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “existential postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck74
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between a person and nature, that is, should we live in harmony with it or subjugate it?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “normative postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck75
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between a person and nature, that is, should we live in harmony with it or subjugate it?”
      • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called “normative postulates”
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck76
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between people, that is, should a person act in an individual manner or consider the group before taking action?”
      • individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in terms of such issues as making decisions, conformity, and so forth
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck77
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What do members of a society assume about the relationship between people, that is, should a person act in an individual manner or consider the group before taking action?”
      • individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in terms of such issues as making decisions, conformity, and so forth
florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck78
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the primary mode of activity in a given society, that is, being, or accepting the status quo, enjoying the current situation, and going with the flow of things;

or doing, that is, changing things to make them better, setting specific goals and accomplishing them within specific schedules, and so forth?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck79
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the primary mode of activity in a given society, that is,being, or accepting the status quo, enjoying the current situation, and going with the flow of things;

or doing, that is, changing things to make them better, setting specific goals and accomplishing them within specific schedules, and so forth?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck80
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the conception of space in a given society,

that is, is it considered private, in that meetings are held in private, people do not get too close to one another physically, and so on;

or public, that is, having everyone participate in meetings and decision making, allowing emotions to be expressed publicly, and having people stand in close proximity to one another?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck81
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the conception of space in a given society,

that is, is it consideredprivate, in that meetings are held in private, people do not get too close to one another physically, and so on;

or public, that is, having everyone participate in meetings and decision making, allowing emotions to be expressed publicly, and having people stand in close proximity to one another?”

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck82
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the society’s dominant temporal orientation”

past

present

and / or future?

florence kluckholn and fred strodtbeck83
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • “What is the society’s dominant temporal orientation”

past

present

and / or future?

constructing cultural metaphors84
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also exist simultaneously in its different geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups
constructing cultural metaphors85
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also exist simultaneously in its different geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups
constructing cultural metaphors86
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society has a dominant cultural orientation that can be described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also exist simultaneously in its different geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups
constructing cultural metaphors87
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
constructing cultural metaphors88
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • made many discoveries in how people learn language
  • analyzed the levels of learning
edward t hall
Edward T. Hall
  • “Context,

or the amount of information that must be explicitly stated if a message or communication is to be successful”

edward t hall90
Edward T. Hall
  • “Space,

or the ways of communicating through specific handling of personal space”

e.g., North Americans tend to keep more space between them while communicating than do South Americans

edward t hall91
Edward T. Hall
  • Time, which is either

monochronic

(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)

or polychronic

(not distinguishing between activities and completing them simultaneously – “multitasking”)

edward t hall92
Edward T. Hall
  • Time, which is either

monochronic

(scheduling and completing one activity at a time)

or polychronic

(not distinguishing between activities and completing them simultaneously – “multitasking”)

edward t hall93
Edward T. Hall
  • “Information flow,

which is the structure and speed of messages between individuals and / or organizations”

constructing cultural metaphors94
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
geert hofstede
Geert Hofstede
  • prominent organizational psychologist
  • research is based on a large questionnaire survey of IBM employees and managers working in 53 different countries
  • especially significant because the type of organization is held constant
geert hofstede96
Geert Hofstede
  • Power distance

or the degree to which members of a society automatically accept a hierarchical or unequal distribution of power in organizations and the society

geert hofstede97
Geert Hofstede
  • Uncertainty avoidance

or the degree to which members of a given society deal with the uncertainty and risk of everyday life and prefer to work with long-term acquaintances and friends rather than with strangers

geert hofstede98
Geert Hofstede
  • Individualism

or the degree to which an individual perceives him- or her-self to be separate from a group and free from group pressure to conform

geert hofstede99
Geert Hofstede
  • Masculinity

or the degree to which a society looks favorably on aggressive and materialistic behavior

geert hofstede100
Geert Hofstede
  • Time horizon

(short term to long term)

or the degree to which members of a culture are willing to defer present gratification in order to achieve long-term goals

geert hofstede101
Geert Hofstede
  • Time horizon

(short term to long term)

or the degree to which members of a culture are willing to defer present gratification in order to achieve long-term goals

slide102
criticisms of the “three-dimensional approaches” developed by Kluckholn and Strodtbeck, Hall, and Hofstende include
  • leave out many features of the cultural mind-sets that are activated in daily cultural activities
  • neglect the institutions molding these mind-sets
  • are instructive, but are “somewhat lifeless and narrow”
  • leave out many facets of behavior
constructing cultural metaphors103
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the items on p. 11 of Gannon’s book . . .
slide104

http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#texthttp://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/index.html#text

a four stage model of cross cultural understanding105
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” of culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
    • they build on the “etic” understanding provided by the approaches used in the first three stages