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Chapter 12 Personality. Video. Defining Some Terms.

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defining some terms
Defining Some Terms
  • Personality: A person’s unique long-term pattern of thinking, emotion, and behavior; the consistency of who you are, have been, and will become
  • Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; desirable or undesirable qualities
  • Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibility
some more terms
Some More Terms
  • Personality traits: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations
  • Behavioral genetics: Study of inherited behavioral traits
  • Personality type: People who have several traits in common
    • What are the limitations of placing people in personality categories?
personality and the self
Personality and the Self
  • Self-concept: Your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about who you are
  • Self-esteem: self-evaluation of one’s worth as a person (as either high or low)
    • How does self-esteem varies across cultures?
judging the personalities of others halo effect
Judging the personalities of others: Halo Effect

Tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to unrelated details of personality (make a good first impression)

personality theories an overview
Personality Theories: An Overview
  • Personality theory: System of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality
  • Includes four perspectives:
    • Trait Theories
    • Psychodynamic Theories
    • Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories
    • Humanistic Theories
trait theories
Trait Theories
  • Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior
  • Remember: Personality traits are the stable qualities that a person shows in most situations
psychodynamic theories
Psychodynamic Theories
  • Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles
behavioristic and social learning theories
Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories
  • Focus on external environment and on effects of conditioning and learning
  • Attribute difference in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes
humanistic theories
Humanistic Theories
  • Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
gordon allport and traits
Gordon Allport and Traits
  • Common traits: Characteristics shared by most members of a culture
    • Examine which traits different cultures emphasize
  • Individual traits: Define a person’s unique personal qualities
  • Cardinal traits: So basic that all of a person’s activities can be traced back to the trait
    • Compassion and Mother Teresa
more on traits
More on Traits
  • Central traits: Core qualities of a personality
  • Secondary traits: inconsistent or relatively superficial
  • Surface traits: observable traits to one’s personality
the big five personality factors traits that relate to temperament
The “Big Five” Personality Factors:Traits that relate to temperament
  • Extroversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Neuroticism
  • Openness to experience
traits and situations
Traits and Situations
  • Trait-situation interactions: When external circumstances influence the expression of personality traits
some key freudian terms
Some Key Freudian Terms
  • Psyche:Freud’s term for the personality; contains id, ego, and superego
freud s psychoanalytic theory the id
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Id
  • Innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving, irrational, and totally unconscious
  • Works via pleasure principle: Wishes to have its desires (pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without waiting and regardless of the consequences
freud s psychoanalytic theory the ego
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Ego
  • Executive; directs id energies
  • Partially conscious and partially unconscious
  • Works via reality principle: Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate
freud s psychoanalytic theory the superego
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Superego
  • Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego
    • Superego comes from our parents or caregivers; guilt comes from the superego
  • Two parts
    • Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punished
    • Ego ideal: Reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded
freud levels of awareness
Freud: Levels of Awareness
  • Unconscious: Holds repressed memories and emotions and the id’s instinctual drives
  • Conscious: Everything you are aware of at a given moment including thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and memories
  • Preconscious: Material that can easily be brought into awareness
freudian personality development
Freudian Personality Development
  • Develops in psychosexual stages; everyone goes through same stages in same order
    • Majority of personality is formed before age 6
  • Erogenous zone: Area on body capable of producing pleasure
  • Fixation: Unresolved conflict or emotional hang-up caused by overindulgence or frustration
freudian personality development oral stage
Freudian Personality Development: Oral Stage
  • Ages 0–1. Most of infants’ pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth. If a child is overfed or frustrated, oral traits will develop
freudian personality development anal stage
Freudian Personality Development: Anal Stage
  • Ages 1–3. Attention turns to process of elimination. Child can gain approval or express aggression by letting go or holding on. Ego develops.
freudian personality development phallic stage
Freudian Personality Development: Phallic Stage
  • Ages 3–6. Child now notices and is physically attracted to opposite sex parent
freudian personality development latency and genital stages
Freudian Personality Development: Latency and Genital Stages
  • Latency: Age 6–puberty. Psychosexual development is dormant. Same-sex friendships and play occur here
  • Genital stage: Puberty and later. Realization of full adult sexuality occurs here; sexual urges re-awaken
neo freudians
  • Accepted broad aspects of Freud’s theory but revised parts of it
carl jung
Carl Jung
  • Persona: Mask or public self presented to others
  • Personal unconscious: Individual’s own experiences are stored in here
      • The contents are unique to each individual
  • Collective unconscious: Unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans
  • Archetypes: Universal idea, image, or pattern found in the collective unconscious
carl jung30
Carl Jung
  • Introversion
  • Extroversion
carl jung cont
Carl Jung (cont)
  • Anima: Archetype representing female principle
  • Animus: Archetype representing male principle
  • Self archetype: Represents unity, completion, and balance
  • Mandala: Circular design representing balance, unity, and completion
    • Symbolized in every culture
learning theories and some key terms
Learning Theories and Some Key Terms
  • Behavioral personality theory: Model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behavior
  • Learning theorist: Believes that learning shapes our behavior and explains personality
  • Situational determinants: External causes of our behaviors
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • An explanation of personality that combines learning principles, cognition, and the effects of social relationships
  • Psychological situation: How the person interprets or defines the situation
  • Expectancy: Anticipation that making a response will lead to reinforcement
  • Reinforcement value: Subjective value attached to a particular activity or reinforcer
some more key terms
Some More Key Terms
  • Self-efficacy (Bandura): Belief in your capacity to produce a desired result
  • Social reinforcement: Praise, attention, approval, and/or affection from others
  • Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals
  • Human nature: Traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of humans
  • Free choice: Ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces
subjective experience
Subjective Experience
  • Private perceptions of reality
abraham maslow
Abraham Maslow
  • Self-actualization: Process of fully developing personal potentials
  • Peak experiences: Temporary moments of self-actualization
  • Think about these times in our lives. Let’s discuss.
characteristics of self actualizers
Characteristics of Self-Actualizers
  • Efficient perceptions of reality
  • Comfortable acceptance of self, others, and nature
  • Spontaneity
  • Task centering
  • Autonomy
characteristics of self actualizers cont
Characteristics of Self-Actualizers (cont)
  • Continued freshness of appreciation
  • Fellowship with humanity
  • Profound interpersonal relationships
  • Comfort with solitude
  • Non-hostile sense of humor
  • Peak experiences
how to become self actualized maslow 1971
How to Become Self-Actualized (Maslow, 1971)
  • Be willing to change
  • Take responsibility
  • Examine your motives
  • Experience honestly and directly
how to become self actualized maslow 1971 cont
How to Become Self-Actualized (Maslow, 1971) (cont)
  • Make use of positive experiences
  • Be prepared to be different
  • Get involved
  • Assess your progress
carl rogers self theory
Carl Rogers’ Self Theory
  • Fully functioning person: Lives in harmony with his/her deepest feelings and impulses
  • Self: Flexible and changing perception of one’s identity
  • Self-image: Total subjective perception of your body and personality
  • Incongruence: Exists when there is a discrepancy between one’s experiences and self-image
  • Ideal self: Idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be)
more rogerian concepts
More Rogerian Concepts
  • Possible self: Collection of thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and images concerning the person one could become
  • Conditions of worth: Internal standards of evaluation
  • Positive self-regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, worthwhile person
even more rogerian concepts
Even More Rogerian Concepts!
  • Organismic valuing: Natural, undistorted, full-body reaction to an experience
  • Unconditional positive regard: Unshakable love and approval
unhealthy personality types
Unhealthy Personality Types
  • Paranoid Personality
  • Dependent Personality
  • Antisocial Personality