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CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS. DENT 657. ANALYSIS UTILIZING THE CEPHALOMETRIC TRACING. 1) Describe the subject’s dento-facial morphology 2) Quantitative description of morphological deviations 3) Make diagnostic and treatment planing decisions

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analysis utilizing the cephalometric tracing
ANALYSIS UTILIZING THE CEPHALOMETRIC TRACING

1) Describe the subject’s dento-facial morphology

2) Quantitative description of morphological deviations

3) Make diagnostic and treatment planing decisions

2) Evaluate change over time - treatment induced and growth process

morphological description
Morphological Description
  • Skeletal - horizontal and vertical
  • Dental - horizontal and vertical
  • Comparing individual subject’s tracing to the “ideal”
  • Reference sample

Cross-sectional

Longitudinal - growth studies eg. Bolton-Brush, Ann Arbor and Burlington

cephalometric analyses
Cephalometric Analyses
  • Down’s
  • Steiner’s
  • Tweed’s
  • McNamara’s
  • OSU
cephalometric evaluation
Cephalometric Evaluation
  • Identification of anatomic landmarks
  • Landmarks: stable reference structures and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental
  • Graphically relating the dento-facial elements to these reference structures
  • Angular and or linear measurements
methods of cephalometric analysis
METHODS OF CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS
  • Two basic approaches
  • Metric approach - use of selected linear and angular measures
  • Graphic approach - “overlay” of individual’s tracing on a reference template and visual inspection of degree of variation
goals of cephalometric anlysis
GOALS OF CEPHALOMETRIC ANLYSIS
  • Evaluating relationships, both horizontal and vertical of 5 major functional components of the face:
  • the cranial base;
  • the maxilla; the mandible,
  • the maxillary and mandibular dento-alveolus
reference lines
REFERENCE LINES
  • Frankfort’s Horizontal (porion to orbitale)
  • Sella - Nasion line
  • True horizontal plane
  • True vertical plane
reference lines11
Reference Lines

nasion

sella

porion

orbitale

skeletal vertical

FH TO GOGN 22 ± 5 deg

Y AXIS 59 ± 6 deg

LFH 55% OF TFH

SKELETAL VERTICAL

S

F H

G O

G N

M E

dental mandibular anterior

L1 TO NB 25deg

L1 TO NB 4mm

L1 TO GOGN 91 ± 6deg

DENTAL - MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR

N

GO

B

GN

limitations of the metric method
Limitations of the Metric Method
  • Stable reference structures are only relatively stable
  • Validity of landmarks
  • Error in landmark identification
graphic method
Graphic Method
  • Template
  • Changes between 2 time points
limitations of cephalometric analysis
Limitations of Cephalometric Analysis
  • Individual variability
  • Ethnic variability
  • Gender variability