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Aug. 25

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    1. Thinking Geographically

    3. Maps of the Marshall Islands

    4. Scale Differences Maps of Washington State

    5. Township & Range System in the US

    6. Layers of a GIS

    9. Uniqueness of Places and Regions Place: Unique location of a feature Place names Site Situation Mathematical location Regions: Areas of unique characteristics Cultural landscape Types of regions Regional integration of culture Cultural ecology

    10. Location - Why Each Point of Earth Is Unique Four ways of indicating location: Place Names toponym Site - physical characteristics Situation - relative location Mathematical - geographic grid

    11. Situation v. Site Situation identifies a place by its location relative to other objects. Situation helps us find an unfamiliar place by comparing its location with a familiar one and helps us understand the importance of a location, e.g. because it is accessible to other places. Site identifies a place by its unique physical characteristics, e.g. climate, water resources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude and elevation.

    12. Site: Lower Manhattan Island

    13. Situation: Singapore

    14. World Geographic Grid

    15. World Time Zones

    16. Region - Why Each Point of Earth Is Unique Geographers analyze regions (regional analysis) to integrate geographic features of an area. Three types of regions are identified: Formal (or uniform or homogeneous) Functional (or nodal) Vernacular (or perceptual) Distinguishing features of regions can include language type, dominant economic activity, or political unit.

    17. Formal and Functional Regions

    18. American Functional Regions Television Markets

    19. Vernacular Regions

    20. Presidential Election 2004 Regional Differences

    21. Presidential Election 2008 Regional Differences

    22. Presidential Election 2008

    23. How Do Geographers Address Where Things Are? Spatial analysis is concerned with analyzing regularities achieved through interaction. Regularities result in a distinctive distribution of a feature. Distribution has three properties: Density Concentration Pattern

    24. Density Arithmetic density the total number of objects (or people) in an area (e.g. houses per acre) Physiological density the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture Agricultural density the number of farmers per unit area of farmland

    25. Concentration and Pattern Concentration the extent to which a feature (or population) is spread over space Clustered Dispersed Pattern the geometric arrangement of objects (or population) in space

    26. Distribution: Density, Concentration, & Pattern

    27. Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams, 1952 & 2007

    28. Culture - Why Each Point of Earth Is Unique A region derives its unified character through the cultural landscape. Cultural landscape is a combination of features such as Language and religion Economic features Physical features The concept of cultural landscape was defined by Carl Sauer (1889 1975) as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group.

    29. The Cultural Landscape The earths surface as modified by human action, is the tangible, physical record of a given culture. House types, transportation networks, parks, and cemeteries, and the size and distribution of settlements are among the indicators of the use that humans have made of the land. As a rule, the more technologically advanced and complex the culture, the greater its impact on the environment, although pre-industrial societies can and frequently do exert destructive pressures on the lands they occupy.

    30. Regions & Culture Different meanings for culture To care about = to adore or worship something To take care of = to nurse or look after something What people care about language, religion and ethnicity What people take care of possessions of wealth (including land and knowledge) and material goods

    31. Why Are Different Places Similar? Globalization (uniformity) v. local diversity (culture) Places in different parts of the world are becoming increasingly similar with respect to cultural preferences, economic activities and environmental management. At the same time, in the face of increasingly uniform patterns, people in various parts of the world are trying to maintain unique (or at least unusual) local customs, economic activities and physical environments.

    32. Major Elements of Globalization Globalization of economy Global movement of money Role of transnational corporations Global investment flows Local specialization in location of production Globalization of culture Elements of culture Customary beliefs Social forms Material traits Elements of globalization of culture Fewer local differences Enhanced communications Unequal access Maintenance of local traditions Globalization of environment Possibilism Physical processes Climate Vegetation Soils Landforms Sensitive and insensitive environmental modifications

    33. Possibilism The physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to their environment by choosing a course of action from among many alternatives in the physical environment.

    34. Environmental Determinism, Possibilism & Waldo Toblers First Law of Geography Environmental Determinism the environment determines the fate of its human population Environmental Possibilism the environment influences the possibilities of its human population (Waldo) Toblers First Law of Geography (distance decay) everything is related to everything else, but nearer things are more related to each other than are distant things

    35. Determinism, Possibilism & Probabilism Determinism states that the environment limits and controls humanity's actions and progressions. Conversely, possibilism argues that man can control his surroundings through better time management and land-use. As an intermediate theory, probabilism recognizes the limiting ability described with determinism yet allows for the modification and adaptation strengths noted by possibilism.

    36. Environmental determinism The idea that the environment has a causal effect on human culture; such beliefs prevailed up to the early 20th century Environmental determinism could explain similarities across culture areas

    37. Environmental Possibilism Also called cultural relativism Environment was only important in limiting possibilities in a culture Immediate cause of cultural features was other cultural features Cultures choose from alternatives, with the environment determining the range of alternatives

    39. World Climate Regions

    41. Environmental Modification in the Netherlands

    42. Environmental Modification in Florida

    43. Why Can Two Regions Display Similar Characteristics? Spatial interaction the interdependence among places established through the degree of movement of people, ideas and objects between regions Diffusion involves the movement of people, ideas and information between places, e.g. a hearth is an area where an innovation originates and then typically diffuses to another region

    44. Diffusion Diffusion the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time. Interaction results from the diffusion of a feature. Types of diffusion Relocation diffusion (bodily movement) Expansion diffusion (through snowballing) Hierarchical diffusion (from a node) Contagious diffusion (widespread) Stimulus diffusion (underlying principles)

    45. Models of Diffusion

    46. Expansion Diffusion Ideas spread throughout a population from area to area. Creates a snowballing effect Subtypes: Hierarchical diffusion: ideas leapfrog from one node to another temporarily bypassing some Contagious diffusion: wavelike, like disease Stimulus diffusion: specific trait rejected, but idea accepted

    47. Relocation Diffusion Relocation diffusion occurs when individuals migrate to a new location carrying new ideas or practices with them Religion is prime example

    48. Stimulus Diffusion The spread of an underlying principle, even though the characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. IBM/Windows-based computers outsell Apple computers worldwide. But the Apple-initiated concepts of the mouse and the icon have become the standard of the industry.

    49. Barriers to Diffusion Absorbing barriers completely halt diffusion: Afghanistan. More commonly barriers are permeable, allowing part of the innovation wave to diffuse, but acting to weaken and retard the continued spread.

    50. Time-Distance Decay Factor Ripples on a pond. Acceptance of an innovation is strongest where it originated. Acceptance weakens as it is diffused farther away. Acceptance also weakens over time. Peoples Republic of China recently opened its doors to foreign investment and a number of cities have been designated as Special Economic Zones. An absorbing barrier has become permeable. Single coastal cities were the first to allow foreign intrusions, these have highest influx of joint-venture projects. As more cities are opened Chinas urban economies will become increasingly internationalized and each city will function as a key center of diffusion to places lower on the social-economic hierarchy. How does time-distance decay play a role here? Peoples Republic of China recently opened its doors to foreign investment and a number of cities have been designated as Special Economic Zones. An absorbing barrier has become permeable. Single coastal cities were the first to allow foreign intrusions, these have highest influx of joint-venture projects. As more cities are opened Chinas urban economies will become increasingly internationalized and each city will function as a key center of diffusion to places lower on the social-economic hierarchy. How does time-distance decay play a role here?

    51. Stages of Innovation Acceptance First acceptance takes place at a slow but steady rate. Second rapid growth in acceptance and the trait spreads rapidly fashion or dance fad neighborhood effect Third slower growth and acceptance of innovation due to absorbing barriers

    52. Neighborhood Effect

    53. What Type of Diffusion Does This Represent?

    54. Susceptibility to an Innovation More crucial when world communications are rapid and pervasive Friction of distance is almost meaningless Must evaluate and explain on a region-by-region basis Inhabitants of two regions will not respond identically to an innovation Geographers seek to understand spatial variation in receptiveness

    55. Similarity of Different Places Scale: From local to global Globalization of economy Globalization of culture Space: Distribution of features Distribution Gender and ethnic diversity in space Connections between places Spatial interaction Diffusion

    56. Space-Time Compression, 1492-1962

    57. Space-Time Compression in America Airline Networks

    58. Discussion Questions How do the specific cultural values with which people endow the physical environment influence the degree to which their development is driven by environmental determinism vs. possibilism? How has space-time compression and diffusion contributed to cultural change and conflict?

    59. Key Concepts Density Agricultural Arithmetic Physiological Diffusion Contagious Expansion Hierarchical Relocation Stimulus Scale Environmental determinism Environmental possibilism Environmental probabilism Site Situation Region Formal Functional Vernacular Globalization Distribution features Density Concentration Toponym Time-space compression Cultural landscape