Learning Attitudes • Consumers some time purchase new products without experience based on attitude of the brand name e.g. Samsung Products like wm, micro . w., t. v. ref. etc. had no name in the market • Personal experience with a product is necessary to form an attitude e.g. the nearest shop had a product disprin only available for someone who was in a headache developed an attitude for him. • There may be reinforcement of such behaviors for the same by the family and the friends • High involvement products have a detailed evaluation always.
Changing Attitudes • Reinforcing the attitudes is like the examples of the Taste of India, Hamara Bajaj, yes yamaha, believe in the best, just do it are some of the long running for reinforcing the attitudes i.e. communicating the attributes of a toothpaste is important to the consumers and is easier than changing the importance of these attributes to the customer. • It is easier to change the beliefs than the desired benefits e.g. marketers can change the beliefs about the some of the drugs do not need the doctor’s prescription and is safe enough for its potential use with then stronger drugs as well. • Low involvement products are comparatively easier to change the attitude with e.g. milk has been under a campaign that it is a source of protien shall prompt a buy as it a low involvement product but changing attitudes for the high involvement is a difficult process.
If the customer holds a weak attitude towards a brand it is easier to change the attitude ,like low involvement products like toothpastes or brand’s overall evaluations Multi Attitude Model of Attitude Change Based upon the Fishbean ‘s multi attribute model Ao=[SUM]BiEi where, Ao = Attitude towards a brand Bi = Belief that the brand possesses attributei Ei = Evaluation or desirability of attribute i I = attribute 1, 2, … m
Changing the values(ei) placed on the product attributes: Most people like some product attribute more important than others and marketers are convinced to promote the superiority of those attributes of the products only e.g. Apple computers have no floppy drive, Epson inkjet printers for inkjet change, bad taste in a mouthwash. • Changing customer beliefs (bi) is by making an importance of product attribute which appeals stronger like the Epson has the Micro Peizo for color production in printing, apple printers uses power processors, nizoral shampoo uses Ketokonazole which completely removes the dandruff • Changing Brand Evaluations(Attitude Component): This is by changing an over all brand attitude of the constomer e.g. Nescafe commercial –ho shuru din aise, when you care enough to send the very best- by hallmark
Changing behavior There may be a possibility of looking for new brands of products which may be bought because of being new and on concession e.g. detergent, cold drink Katz functional theory and attitude change: • Changing attitudes due to utilitarian function : To show the utility or solve a problem e.g. m-seal for leakages, nestle for desserts and sweets, it satisfies set of utilitarian functions. • Value –expressive function: To show a value that may be Important to a person e.g. to be vegetarian would not use animal fat Anchor white toothpaste is purely vegetarian, ready made latest fashion clothes for the younger generation can e one value expressive function • Ego defensive function: It is to change or minimize the usage of some products like cigarettes for which advertizing may be hurting the ego; hence we use a positive approach for showing them the steps to minimize it hence influencing the attitudes.
Knowledge function: This is by making a clear unambiguous positioning like apple computers have a strong brand towards computers have a specific positioning had apple been open to many assembled marketers must have had failed in such a positioning. Elaboration Likelihood model and Attitude Change: The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is a model of how attitudes are formed and changed that was developed. Central to this model is the low elaboration (low thought) to high elaboration (high thought). The ELM distinguishes between two routes to persuasion: the "central (logical) route," where a subject considers an idea logically, and the "peripheral (external) route," in which the audience uses preexisting ideas and superficial qualities to be persuaded. Some of the products can be the high involvement where more logical reasoning is required and low involvement e.g. how people may possess information about a weight watcher ‘personal point’ e.g.
ELM Model for the central route – I must join this program, it looks like a promising program In other case when the customer is not involved uses the peripheral processing in the weight loss may think that I am not really willing to take it this time or they just aim to sell, this program. Hence, it can be a low involvement condition r a high involvement condition. Post purchase attitude change: Cognitive dissonance: A sad and remorse feeling after the Purchase of generally a High involvement product the basis behind it are the following; *Commitment * Importance of decision *Difficulty amongst choosing the alternatives *Individual’s personality. We can avoid it by following: * Provide information about the care and maintenance * Warranty/ Guarantee Schemes * Immediate follow up on complaints * Confirm the product satisfaction * Maintaining a good contactwith the customer.
Attribution theory: it suggests that the customers seek to determine causes (attributions) which may be the internal (credit to themselves) or External( the others in the environment). Hence, to influence the attitudes favorably the marketers should give their consumers a positive reason for their choice after the act. Hence the marketers offer a high quality products and let them perceive the high quality, hence even in a discount like 30 percent the marketers should have a reason communicated for the same for a repeat purchase.