attitude formation and change l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Attitude Formation and Change PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Attitude Formation and Change

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Attitude Formation and Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 929 Views
  • Uploaded on

Attitude Formation and Change. What is an attitude?. A learned predisposition to respond to an object or a class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. Attitudes are relatively enduring. Attitudes are situation-related. Functions of Attitudes. Utilitarian function

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Attitude Formation and Change' - salena


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
what is an attitude
What is an attitude?
  • A learned predisposition to respond to an object or a class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.
  • Attitudes are relatively enduring.
  • Attitudes are situation-related.
functions of attitudes
Functions of Attitudes
  • Utilitarian function
  • Ego-defensive function
  • Knowledge function
  • Value-expressive function
how do we form attitudes
How do we form attitudes?
  • Three different paths to attitude formation:
    • Attitudes are created by first creating beliefs.
      • Consumer beliefs are the knowledge that a consumer has about objects, their attributes, and the benefits provided by the objects.
      • Consumer beliefs are created by processing information--cognitive learning.
forming attitudes continued
Forming Attitudes, continued
  • Attitudes are created directly.
    • Behavioral learning
    • Mere exposure
  • Attitudes are created by first creating behaviors.
    • Consumers respond to strong situational or environmental forces, and after engaging in the behavior, form attitudes about the experience.
structural model of attitude
Structural Model of Attitude
  • Tricomponent Attitude Model
tricomponent model
Tricomponent Model
  • Cognitive component
    • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.
  • Affective component
    • The emotions or feelings associate with a particular product or brand.
  • Conative component
    • The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.
measurement models of attitude
Measurement Models of Attitude
  • Multiattribute model
    • Fishbein and Azjen
    • Measures attitude score using consumers’ beliefs and evaluations about attributes of the attitude object.
      • Several different contexts in which attitude scores are measured.
        • Attitude-toward-the-object model
        • Attitude-toward-the-behavior model
multiattribute model
Multiattribute Model

Aj = ∑BijIi

Where:

i = attribute or product characteristic

j= brand

Such that:

A = the consumer’s attitude score for brand j

I = the importance weight given to attribute i by the

consumer

B = the consumer’s belief as to the extent to which a

satisfactory level of attribute i is offered by brand j

understanding the multiattribute model
Understanding the Multiattribute Model
  • All relevant product attributes, based on consumers’ perceptions, need to be included in the model to provide dimensionality.
  • Even though there may be several relevant attributes, they are not generally equally important. The importance weight of the formula allows adjustment of the importance of each attribute individually.
understanding the multiattribute model11
Understanding the Multiattribute Model...
  • Beliefs represent the extent to which each product offers satisfaction for the attribute in question.
  • Compensatory model.
advantages of multiattribute model
Advantages of Multiattribute Model
  • Clearly shows what is important to consumers about a given product.
  • Shows how well brands do relative to each other.
  • Shows how well a specific brand does with respect to attributes perceived as important to consumers.
weakness of multiattribute model
Weakness of Multiattribute Model
  • Not a perfect predictor of consumer behavior
  • Lots of variables determine behavior in addition to attitude:
    • Involvement
    • Friends
    • Family
    • Financial resources
    • Availability of product
theory of reasoned action
Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Extends multiattribute model; tries to compensate for the inability of the multiattribute model to predict behavior.
  • Assumes that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative behaviors under consideration and choose the one that leads to the most desirable consequences.
  • The outcomes of this reasoned choice process is an intention to engage in a selected behavior--behavioral intention.
theory of reasoned action15
Theory of Reasoned Action

B~BI = Aact(w1) + SN(w2)

Where:

B = a specific behavior

BI = consumer’s intention to engage in that

behavior

Aact = consumer’s attitude toward engaging in that

behavior

SN = subjective norm regarding whether other

people want the consumer to engage in that

behavior

w1 & w2 = weights that reflect the relative influence of

the Aact and SN components on BI

simplified version
Simplified Version

Beliefs that

the behavior

leads to

certain

outcomes

Evaluation

of the

outcomes

Beliefs that

specific

referents think

I should or

should not

perform the

behavior

Motivation

to comply

with the

specific

referents

Attitude toward

the behavior

Subjective Norm

Intention

Behavior

attitude toward the ad model
Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model
  • Very specific to understanding the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes about a particular product or brand.
  • Exposure to advertising affects attitude-toward-the ad and attitude-toward-the brand.
attitude toward the ad model19
Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model
  • Very specific to understanding the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes about a particular product or brand.
  • Exposure to advertising directly affects beliefs about the ad and brand, and feelings about the ad.
  • Exposure to advertising indirectly affects attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the ad.
slide20

Exposure to ad

Judgments about

the ad (cognition)

Feelings from

the ad (affect)

Beliefs about

the brand

Attitude toward

the ad

Attitude toward

the brand

how can marketers change attitudes
How Can Marketers Change Attitudes?
  • Alter components of multiattribute model
    • Increase belief ratings for the brand
    • Increase the importance of a key attribute
    • Decrease the importance of a weak attribute
    • Add an entirely new attribute
    • Decrease belief ratings for competitive brands
changing attitudes
Changing attitudes….
  • Change beliefs and attitudes through persuasion
  • Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM)
slide23

Motivation

to

Elaborate

Ability

to

Elaborate

Amount

of

Elaboration

Low

High

Central

Route to

Persuasion

Peripheral

Route to

Persuasion

Message

Arguments

Determine

persuasion

Peripheral

Cues

Determine

persuasion

slide24

High-involvement

processing

Cognitive

responses

Belief and

attitude

change

Behavior

change

Central

route

Communication

(source,message,

channel)

Attention and

comprehension

Peripheral

route

Low-involvement

processing

Belief

change

Behavior

change

Attitude

change

changing attitudes25
Changing attitudes...
  • Changing attitudes directly though behavior
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theories
    • Balance Theory
    • Social Judgment Theory
  • Attribution Theory
balance theory
Balance Theory
  • Consumers strive for consistency between interconnected attitudes.
  • Marketers can influence attitudes by creating imbalance within the target of persuasion--motivates consumer to change one or more of the interconnected attitudes to restore balance.
social judgment theory
Social Judgment Theory
  • Consumers use attitudes as a frame of reference to judge new information.
  • If high involvement:
    • Narrow latitude of acceptance
    • Wide latitude of rejection
    • Assimilation effect
    • Contrast effect
  • If low involvement:
    • Wide latitude of acceptance
    • Wide latitude of noncommitment
attribution theory
Attribution Theory
  • Consumers make inferences about behaviors, assign causality--blame or credit--to events on the basis of their or others’ behaviors.
  • In the process of assigning causality, form attitudes.
  • Marketing implications:
    • Offer high quality products
    • Advertising should emphasize quality.
    • Moderate-sized incentives.