Chapter 13-Operating Cisco Routers • Installing Cisco Routers • Cisco Router IOS CLI • Upgrading Cisco IOS Software and the Cisco IOS Software Boot Process
Do I know this? Go through the Quiz- 5 minutes
1. Which of the following installation steps are typically required on a Cisco router, but not typically required on a Cisco switch? a. Connect Ethernet cables b. Connect serial cables c. Connect to the console port d. Connect the power cable e. Turn the on/off switch to “on”
2. Which of the following roles does a SOHO router typically play in regards to IP address assignment? a. DHCP server on the interface connected to the ISP b. DHCP server on the interface connected to the PCs at the home/office c. DHCP client on the interface connected to the ISP d. DHCP client on the interface connected to the PCs at the home/office
3. Which of the following features would you typically expect to be associated with the router CLI, but not with the switch CLI? a. The clock rate command b. The ip address address mask command c. The ip address dhcp command d. The interface vlan 1 command
4. You just bought two Cisco routers for use in a lab, connecting each router to a different LAN switch with their Fa0/0 interfaces. You also connected the two routers’ serial interfaces using a back-to-back cable. Which of the following steps is not required to be able to forward IP on both routers’ interfaces? a. Configuring an IP address on each router’s FastEthernet and serial interfaces b. Configuring the bandwidth command on one router’s serial interface c. Configuring the clock rate command on one router’s serial interface d. Setting the interface description on both the FastEthernet and serial interface of each router
5. The output of the show ip interface brief command on R1 lists interface status codes of “down” and “down” for interface Serial 0/0. Which of the following could be true? a. The shutdown command is currently configured for that interface. b. R1’s serial interface has been configured to use Frame Relay, but the router on the other end of the serial link has been configured to use PPP. c. R1’s serial interface does not have a serial cable installed. d. Both routers have been cabled to a working serial link (CSU/DSUs included), but only one router has been configured with an IP address.
6. Which of the following commands does not list the IP address and mask of at least one interface? a. show running-config b. show protocols type number c. show ip interface brief d. show interfaces e. show version
7. Which of the following is different on the Cisco switch CLI as compared with the Cisco router CLI? a. The commands used to configure simple password checking for the console b. The number of IP addresses configured c. The types of questions asked in setup mode d. The configuration of the device’s host name e. The configuration of an interface description
8. Which of the following could cause a router to change the IOS that is loaded when the router boots? a. reload EXEC command b. boot EXEC command c. reboot EXEC command d. boot system configuration command e. reboot system configuration command f. configuration register
9. Which of the following hexadecimal values in the last nibble of the configuration register would cause a router to not look in Flash memory for an IOS? a. 0 b. 2 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6
Installing Enterprise Routers • Basic connections • Know the cabling
Integrated Services Routers • Router • LAN Switch • VoIP
Physical INstallation Step 1 Connect any LAN cables to the LAN ports. Step 2 If using an external CSU/DSU, connect the router’s serial interface to the CSU/DSU, and the CSU/DSU to the line from the telco. Step 3 If using an internal CSU/DSU, connect the router’s serial interface to the line from the telco. Step 4 Connect the router’s console port to a PC (using a rollover cable), as needed, to configure the router. Step 5 Connect a power cable from a power outlet to the power port on the router. Step 6 Turn on the router.
SOHO Installations • Often Internet comes in from Cable or DSL modem • Similar to CSU/DSU in purpose • Connect the correct UTP cables • Integrated Devices • We will study for separate
Router IOS • Similar to Switch IOS ■ User and Enable (privileged) mode ■ Entering and exiting configuration mode, using the configure terminal, end, and exit commands, and the Ctrl-Z key sequence ■ Configuration of console, Telnet, and enable secret passwords ■ Configuration of SSH encryption keys and username/password login credentials ■ Configuration of the host name and interface description ■ Configuration of Ethernet interfaces that can negotiate speed, using the speed and duplex commands ■ Configuring an interface to be administratively disabled (shutdown) and administratively enabled (no shutdown) ■ Navigation through different configuration mode contexts using commands like line console 0 and interface ■ CLI help, command editing, and command recall features ■ The meaning and use of the startup-config (in NVRAM), running-config (in RAM), and external servers (like TFTP), along with how to use the copy command to copy the configuration files and IOS images ■ The process of reaching setup mode either by reloading the router with an empty startup-config or by using the setup command
Router IOS Differences ■ The questions asked in setup mode differ. ■ Routers have an auxiliary (Aux) port, intended to be connected to an external modem and phone line, to allow remote users to dial into the router, and access the CLI, by making a phone call.
Router Interfaces • Ethernet • Interface FastEthernet number • Interface fastethernet 0 • Sometimes slot/port • Interface fastethernet 0/1 • Serial • Same as ethernet
List interfaces • Show ip interfaces brief Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol FastEthernet0/0 unassigned YES unset up up FastEthernet0/1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down Serial0/0/0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down Serial0/0/1 unassigned YES unset up up Serial0/1/0 unassigned YES unset up up Serial0/1/1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down • Show protocols
List interfaces • Show protocols Albuquerque#show protocols fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Albuquerque#show interfaces s0/1/0 Serial0/1/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is GT96K Serial MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload
Interface Status Codes • Like on Switch
Router IP Addresses • Enter interface configuration Mode • Config t • Interface f0/1 • Ipaddress 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
Serial Interfaces • Clock Rate • Used when clock is not coming from CSU/DSU • Configured on device with DCE cable • Show controllers serial 0 • Sets speed that interface will send bits
Bandwidth • Used for software and configuration • Sets metrics • EIGRP • OSPF
Aux Port • Usually for modems • Similar to console or vty • Login • password
Setup Mode • Similar to Switches • Basics configs • IP addresses • Passwords • Routing
IOS Upgrades • IOS is in FLASH memory • Can download a new IOS from a tftp server • copy tftp flash • Will ask IP address of tftp server • Will ask name of flash file-need to know it exaclty
IOS Upgrades 1. What is the IP address or host name of the TFTP server? 2. What is the name of the file? 3. Is space available for this file in Flash memory? 4. Does the server actually have a file by that name? 5. Do you want the router to erase the old files?
IOS Boot Sequence 1. The router performs a power-on self-test (POST) to discover the hardware components and verify that all components work properly. 2. The router copies a bootstrap program from ROM into RAM, and runs the bootstrap program. 3. The bootstrap program decides which IOS image (or other OS) to load into RAM, and loads that OS. After loading the IOS image, the bootstrap program hands over control of the router hardware to the newly loaded OS. 4. If the bootstrap program loaded IOS, IOS finds the configuration file (typically the startup-config file in NVRAM) and loads it into RAM as the running-config.
Configuration Registers • Config register command • Specify how the system should boot • 0x2100 • Boot into rommon for password recovery • 0x2102 • Default behavior • Use show version to see settings
Choosing and IOS • Boot system commands • Can be used to give a set of boot options • Similar to PC boot order in Bios
Show version • See the details of RAM, NVRAM, FLASH • IOS version • Configuration Register • Interfaces