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Achieving Sustainable Forest Management in the Southeastern USA Southern Center for Sustainable Forests Management Responses: Social, Worker Protection, Non-Timber Forest Products, Recreation, and Economics Distance Learning Module 18 November 2002

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slide1

Achieving Sustainable Forest Management in the Southeastern USASouthern Center for Sustainable Forests

Management Responses:

Social, Worker Protection, Non-Timber Forest Products, Recreation, and Economics

Distance Learning Module

18 November 2002

Moderator : Fred Cubbage, NC State University

today s panelists
Today’s Panelists
  • Erin Sills, NCSU, Resource Economics and International Forestry
  • Robert Healy, Duke, Land Use Policy and International Development
  • Toddi Steelman, NCSU, Resource Policy and Public Participation
  • Judson Edeburn, Duke, Forest Manager
  • Joe Cox, NCSU, Forest Manager
applicable standards objectives
FSC

1. Compliance w/laws

2. Tenure

3. Indigenous Peoples

4. Community/Workers

5. Benefits

6.Environmental Impact

7. Management Plan

8. Monitoring/Assess.

9. HCVF’s

10. Plantations

SFI

1. Broaden the Practice

2. Ensure LT Prod./Cons.

3. Protect Water

4. Manage Wildlife, Conserve Diversity

5. Manage Visual Impact

6. Ecologic, Geologic, Historic Significance

7. Efficient Use

8. Broaden Practice-Procurement

9. Public Reporting

10. Public/Comm. Participation

Applicable Standards/Objectives
status of standards guidelines
FSC/SmartWood

SmartWood Interim Certification Standards for Southern US

May 2002

SFI

2002-2004 Edition of Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) Program

July 1, 2002

Status of Standards/Guidelines
slide6
Social Components

and Worker Safety

Standards

sfi standard objective 6 performance measure 1
SFI Standard Objective 6, Performance Measure 1
  • Manage program participants’ lands of ecologic, geologic, cultural, or historic significance in a manner that recognizes their unique features
  • Performance measure 1: Identify special sites and manage them in a manner appropriate for their unique features
  • Core Indicators:
    • Written policy..
    • Obtain existing natural heritage data and cooperate in identifying sites for protection
    • Map and catalog existing sites
sfi standard objective 9 performance measure 1
SFI Standard Objective 9,Performance Measure 1
  • Publicly report Program Participants’ progress in fulfilling their commitment to sustainable forestry
  • Performance Measure 1: Report annually to the SFI program on participants’ compliance with SFIS
  • Core indicators:
    • Records track all categories of information needed for annual progress reports
    • Prompt response to annual SFI annual questionnaire
    • Copies of past reports maintained
sfi standard objective 10 performance measure 1
SFI Standard Objective 10, Performance Measure 1
  • Provide opportunities for the public and the forestry community to participate in the commitment to sustainable forestry
  • Performance Measure 1: Support and promote, at state of other levels, public outreach, education, and involvement
  • Core indicator: Support SFI State Implementation Committee (SIC)
  • Other Indicators: (4 of 15)
    • Use focus groups to understand public opinion
    • Partner with external groups interested in mgt
    • SFI accomplishments publicly reported
    • Public input used to modify practices
sfi standard objective 10 performance measure 2
SFI Standard Objective 10, Performance Measure 2
  • Establish, at the state or other appropriate levels, procedures to address concerns raised by loggers, consulting foresters, employees, the public, or Program Participants (PP) regarding practices that are inconsistent with the SFIS principles and Objectives
  • Core indicator: Support SFI State Implementation Committee (SIC) efforts to address concerns raised by loggers, consulting foresters, employees, PP and the public
  • Other Indicators:
    • Support SFI SIC efforts to implement discussion processes with wood producers, consultants, and others
    • Effective communication activities between the National Forum and activities at the state and local level
smartwood fsc standard principle 1
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Principle #1
  • Compliance with Laws and FSC Principles: Forest management shall respect all applicable laws of the country in which they occur, and international treaties and agreements to which the country is a signatory, and comply with all FSC Principles and Criteria
  • Criteria 1.6: Forest managers shall demonstrate a long-term commitment to adhere to the FSC Principles and Criteria
smartwood fsc standard principle 2
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Principle #2
  • Tenure and Use Rights and responsibilities: Long-Term tenure and use rights to the land and forest resources shall be clearly defined, documented and legally established.
  • Criteria 2.2. Local communities with legal or customary tenure or use rights shall maintain control to the extent necessary over forest operations…
  • Indicator: The forest owner or manager allows well-established customary and lawful uses of the forest to the extent that they are consistent with conservation of the forest resource and objectives…uses should be constrained if it degrades the environment, diminishes landowner use, or causes economic loss or liability.
smartwood fsc standard principles 3 4
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Principles #3&4
  • #3: Indigenous Peoples’ Rights:The legal and customary rights of indigenous peoples to own, use and manage their lands, territories, and resources shall be recognized and respected.
  • #4: Community relations and Workers’ Rights: Forest operations shall maintain or enhance the long-term social and economic well being of forest workers and local communities.
smartwood fsc standard criteria for principle 4
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Criteria for Principle #4
  • Criteria 4.1: The communities within, or adjacent to, the forest management area should be given opportunities for employment, training, and other services.
  • Criteria 4.3. The rights of workers to organize and voluntarily negotiate with their employers will be guaranteed as outlined in Conventions 87and 98 of the International labour Organization (ILO).
smartwood fsc standard criteria for principle 415
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Criteria for Principle #4
  • Criteria 4.2: Forest management should meet or exceed all applicable laws and/or regulations covering health and safety of employees and their families.
  • Indicator: The forest owner or manager and their contractors develop and implement safety programs and procedures that include:
    • Well-maintained and safe machinery/equipment
    • Use of safety equipment for each task
    • Documented and posted safety procedures
    • Educational efforts
    • Contracts with safety requirements
    • Safety records, training reports, and certificates
smartwood fsc standard criteria for principle 416
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Criteria for Principle #4
  • Criteria 4.4: Management planning and operations shall incorporate the results of evaluations of social impact. Consultations shall be maintained with people and groups directly affected by management operations.
  • Indicators:
    • Input by affected people
    • Notification of operations to affected people, along with environmental affects, and addressing concerns in management plans
    • Archeological, cultural, and historical sites designated as special zones/protected at harvest
    • Maintain an up to date list of neighboring landowners
smartwood fsc standard principle 7
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Principle #7
  • Management Plan: A management plan – appropriate to the scale and intensity of operations – shall be written, implemented, and kept up to date. The long-term objectives of the management, and the means of achieving them, shall be clearly stated.
  • Criteria 7.3: Forest workers shall receive adequate training and supervision to ensure proper implementation of the management plan.
smartwood fsc standard principle 7 criteria 7 4
Smartwood/FSC Standard, Principle #7/Criteria 7.4
  • While respecting the confidentiality of information, forest managers shall make publicly available a summary of the primary elements of the management plan including:
    • Management objectives
    • Description of forest resource to be managed
    • Description of silvicultural/other management systems
    • Rationale for annual harvest and species selection
    • Provisions for monitoring forest growth and dynamics
    • Environmental safeguards
    • Plans to identify and protect rare, T&E species
    • Maps describing the forest resource base
initial panel questions standards
Initial Panel Questions Standards
  • Comments on standards
  • Comprehensive?
  • Achievable?
  • Operational implications?
  • SFI vs. FSC
slide20
Social Components

and Worker Safety

Non-Conformances

and Conditions

worker protection safety sfi bladen lakes
Worker Protection / SafetySFI – Bladen Lakes
  • Major Non-Conformance: BLSF could not show legally required records of worker protection training for non-licensed chemical applicators.
  • Remedy: BLSF provided evidence documenting this training as required
  • Objective 2, Performance Measure 1, Core Indicator 1
worker protection safety sfi ncsu
Worker Protection / SafetySFI – NCSU
  • Major Non-Conformance: NCSU could not show legally required records of worker protection training for non-licensed chemical applicators.
  • Remedy: NCSU instituted a new training materials and record form, and is using them for student employees in the Fall of 2002
  • Objective 2, Performance Measure 1, Core Indicator 1
worker protection safety fsc ncsu
Worker Protection / SafetyFSC – NCSU
  • Condition 3: Within one year, NCSU shall develop a policy for informing faculty and graduate students of the potential hazards in the forest, and the need for considering safety equipment when performing research,and for providing notification of major undertakings in the College Forests to the Forest Manager.
  • Criteria 4.2, 4.4, and 4.5
worker protection safety fsc duke
Worker Protection / SafetyFSC – Duke
  • Condition 1: Within one year, Duke shall develop a policy for informing faculty, staff, graduate students, and visitors of the potential hazards in the forest, and the need for considering safety equipment upon entering the Duke Forest. Equipment itself should be made available to visitors. Faculty researchers should be requested to incorporate safety equipment requests in their funding applications.
  • Criteria 4.2
initial panel questions
Initial Panel Questions
  • What are forests doing to meet social conditions and conformances?
  • With SFM, where is line/tradeoff between forest management objectives and recreational demands?
  • How far do we go in worker/visitor/ scientist/student safety?
slide26
Social Concerns

Non-Conformances

and Conditions

social concerns fsc ncsu
Social ConcernsFSC – NCSU
  • Condition 1: Within one year, NCSU shall clearly demonstrate long-term support for the FSC Principles and Criteria. This may be during demonstrations, at stakeholder meetings, and/or other public forum arenas and should also consider making the same commitment in writing
  • Criterion 1.6
social concerns fsc ncsu28
Social ConcernsFSC – NCSU
  • Condition 2: Within one year, NCSU shall initiate a process or strategy for developing permanent relationships with stakeholders or certain recreational users (e.g. dog walkers on the Schenck Memorial Forest) to avoid or resolve conflicts
  • Criterion 2.2
social concerns fsc ncsu29
Social ConcernsFSC – NCSU
  • Condition 16: Within one year, NCSU shall make available to the pubic a summary of the primary elements of the management plans (Criterion 7.4)
  • Condition 19: Within one year, NCSU shall make a summary of the current research and monitoring occurring on the forest available to the public (Criterion 8.5)
social concerns fsc duke
Social ConcernsFSC – Duke
  • Condition 2: Within one year, Duke shall develop a proactive strategy for capturing stakeholder attitudes, opinions, and perceptions of Duke Forest and its operations. This includes a continual updating of its stakeholder lists
  • (Criterion 4.4 and 4.5)
social concerns fsc duke31
Social ConcernsFSC – Duke
  • Condition 10: Within one year, Duke shall indicate how a summary of the primary elements of the management plans, including those included in Criteria 7.1, as per the SmartWood and FSC requirements, will be made publicly available (withholding any proprietary information as necessary)
  • (Criterion 7.4)
social concerns sfi duke
Social ConcernsSFI – Duke
  • Minor Non-conformance: Duke Forest could not show how it supports the SFI State implementation Committee’s “efforts to address concerns”…”regarding practices that appear to be inconsistent with the SFIS”.
  • During the audit, Duke remedied this with a revised policy that satisfies the core indicator.
  • Objective 10, Performance Measure 2, Core Indicator 1
initial panel questions33
Initial Panel Questions
  • What are forests doing to meet preceding social conditions and conformances?
  • How are organizations participating in promoting FSC or working with SFI SIC committees?
  • What are we doing on stakeholder involvement?
  • Public information of our plans?
  • What should we be doing?
slide34
Recreation

Standards

recreation sfi
Recreation - SFI
  • 4.1.1.1.1.3: Program Participants shall provide recreation and education opportunities for the public where they are consistent with their forest management objectives.
  • Core indicator: Written policy describing public recreation and education efforts, consistent with forest management objectives.
slide36
Economics ,

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs),

and Monitoring and Assessment

Standards

economics smartwood fsc principle 5
Economics – Smartwood/FSCPrinciple #5
  • Benefits from the Forest: Forest management operations shall encourage the efficient use of the forest’s multiple products and services to ensure economic viability and a wide range of environmental and social benefits
  • Criteria 5.1: Forest management should strive toward economic viability, while taking into account the full environmental, social, and operational costs of production, and ensuring the investments necessary to maintain the ecological productivity of the forest.
  • Indicator: The forest owner or manager is financially able to support long-term (I.e. decades rather tan quarters-years or years) forest management, e.g., planning, inventory, resource protection, timber stand improvement, post-harvest management activities.
economics smartwood fsc principle 5 criteria 5 2 ntfps
Economics – Smartwood/FSCPrinciple #5, Criteria 5.2 (NTFPs)
  • Forest management and marketing operations should encourage the optimal use and local processing of the forest’s diversity of products
  • Indicator: New markets are explored and developed for common but less-used species, grades of lumber, or an expanded diversity of products.
  • Indicator: NTFPs are considered during forest use and harvesting
  • Indicator: When non-timber products are harvested, the management and use of those products are incorporated into the management strategy.
economics smartwood fsc principle 5 criteria 5 4 7 1 ntfps
Economics – Smartwood/FSCPrinciple #5, Criteria 5.4 & 7.1 (NTFPs)
  • 5.4: Forest management should strive to strengthen and diversify the local economy, avoiding dependence on a single forest product; Indicators:
    • Mgt diversifies uses and products, while maintaining forest composition and functions
    • Owners and managers foster product diversification of new markets and products
    • Support local value added processing
  • 7.1: NTFP resources and uses have been inventoried and their management explicitly considered during planning
monitoring and assessment smartwood fsc principle 8
Monitoring and Assessment Smartwood/FSC Principle #8
  • Criteria 8.1: The frequency and intensity of monitoring should be determined by the scale and intensity of forest management operations as well as the relative complexity and fragility of the affected environment. Monitoring procedures should be consistent and replicable over time to allow comparison of results and assessment of change.
  • Indicator: Monitoring reports provide sufficient timely, accurate, and technically sound information
  • Indicator: Monitoring reports indicate how management prescriptions should be changed, based on ecological, silvicultural, or market information
monitoring and assessment smartwood fsc principle 841
Monitoring and Assessment Smartwood/FSC Principle #8
  • Criteria 8.2: Forest management should include the research and data collection needed to monitor, at a minimum, the following indicators:
    • Yield of all forest products harvested
    • Growth rates, regeneration, and condition of forest
    • Composition and observed changes in flora and fauna
    • Environmental and social impacts of harvesting and other operations
    • Costs, productivity, and efficiency of forest management
  • Criterion 8.5 While respecting the confidentiality of information, forest managers shall make publicly available a summary of the results of monitoring indicators.
slide42
Economics ,

Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs),

and Monitoring and Assessment

Non-Conformances and Conditions

economics fsc ncsu
EconomicsFSC – NCSU
  • Condition 4: Within two years, NCSU shall develop and implement a strategy for determining the effectiveness and efficiency of their management, and identify areas such as staffing, processes, technology, and revenue that may or may not be needed to match the increasing pressures and demands for more effective operation of the Forest in the future.
  • Criteria 5.1 and 8.1
economics fsc duke
EconomicsFSC – Duke
  • Condition 4: Within two years, Duke shall create a written plan to monitor cost, productivity, and efficiency of management strategies on the forest and implement that plan.
  • Criteria 8.2
initial panel questions45
Initial Panel Questions
  • What are forests doing to meet reporting, planning, and economic, conditions and conformances?
  • What are we or can we do to measure and inventory NTFPs?
  • Are we evaluating economic alternatives well?
  • How should we?
summary panel questions
Summary Panel Questions
  • How do these apply to other U.S. South owners?
  • How will FSC apply to other owners/lands in world?
  • Can these be implemented in affordable manner?
  • How should be standards be changed or interpreted to better achieve SFM?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Worker Protection, Social Concerns, Economics, and Non-Timber Forest Products
  • Large and complex set of
    • SFI Standards, Objectives, Performance Measures, Core Indicators, and Other Indicators
    • FSC Principles, Criteria and Indicators
  • A challenge for measuring, monitoring, and meeting standards with management and record keeping practices
  • Stay tuned for future developments
  • Thanks to the panel!
references
References
  • Southern Center for Sustainable Forests
    • NCSU, Duke, NC Division Forest Resources
    • www.env.duke.edu/scsf/
  • Certification Web Sites
    • www.aboutsfi.org
    • www.smarwood.org
    • www.fscus.org