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The Role of Emotion in Youths’ Responses to Counter-Advertising. Marian Chapman Moore, University of Virginia Lisa Szykman, College of William and Mary Todd Mooradian, College of William and Mary Erin L. Sutfin, University of Virginia.

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the role of emotion in youths responses to counter advertising

The Role of Emotion in Youths’ Responses to Counter-Advertising

Marian Chapman Moore, University of Virginia

Lisa Szykman, College of William and Mary

Todd Mooradian, College of William and Mary

Erin L. Sutfin, University of Virginia

prevalence of tobacco use
Young adults (18-25) report the highest rate of tobacco use of any age group (NSDUH, 2002).

About 40% of 18-25 year olds report smoking cigarettes in the past month (NSDUH, 2002).

Cigarette smoking rates increase until 21 and then slowly decline (NSDUH, 2002).

Prevalence of Tobacco Use
anti smoking advertising
Increase in anti-smoking campaigns, including advertising, due to Master Settlement Agreement

Results vary: why?

Variation in campaign objective

Variation in target group

Variation in thematic approaches

Health consequences (short & long term)

Cosmetic consequences

Social consequences

Industry Manipulation

Anti-Smoking Advertising

…and so forth

prevention vs cessation
Main goal of current mass media campaigns is prevention

For the substantial number of young adults who already smoke, the issue is cessation

Can ads that focus on prevention also work for cessation?

Prevention vs. Cessation
smokers vs non smokers
Reactance Theory (Brehm, 1966).

When people feel their freedom is threatened, they experience reactance

In order to reduce the reactance, they perform the threatened behavior

Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friedstadt & Wright, 1994).

Suggests that smokers may recognize anti-smoking ads as a persuasion attempt

Smokers may counter-argue the ad to protect their existing attitudes

Social Influences—e.g., friends, family members who smoke, importance of tobacco to the community

Smokers vs. Non-Smokers
slide6

Possible Antecedents of Youths’ Responses to Tobacco Counter-Advertising

  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • FACTORS:
  • Micro:
  • Parenting Style
  • Family Characteristics
  • Macro:
  • Demographics
  • Socio-demographics
  • ADVERTISEMENT:
  • Message:
  • Content
  • Consistency
  • Clarity
  • Source, source credibility
  • Ad Execution:
  • Age of Spokesperson
  • Depiction of smoking behavior
  • DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
  • ENVIRONMENTAL
  • FACTORS
  • “Parental Consumer
  • Education Role”
  • Parents’ Smoking
  • Experience
  • Reside in tobacco producing
  • region

ADVERTISING RESPONSES:

Cognitive and Emotional Reactions

to the ad;

  • ENDURING
  • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS:
  • Temperament
  • Socialization Stage
  • Personality
    • Self Esteem
    • Self Monitoring
    • (Trait)
  • DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
  • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS:
  • Persuasion Knowledge
  • Model:
  • Topic Knowledge and Attitude
  • (attitude toward smoking,smokers,
  • cigarette companies, etc)
  • Persuasion Knowledge
  • Agent Knowledge and Attitude
  • Other:
  • Sophistication
  • Skepticism
  • Susceptibility to Influence
  • Self Monitoring (State)
  • Stage of smoking acquisition
  • ADVERTISING EFFECTS:
  • Beliefs about smoking, smokers,
  • tobacco companies
  • Attitude smoking, smokers, tobacco
  • companies;
  • Intention to initiate, increase,
  • decrease or attempt to quit smoking
slide7

Possible Antecedents of Youths’ Responses to Tobacco Counter-Advertising:

Initial Study

  • DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
  • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS:
  • Topic Knowledge and Attitude
  • (attitude toward smoking,
  • cigarette companies, etc)
  • Stage of smoking
  • acquisition
  • AD:
  • Theme
  • Prior
  • Exposure

ADVERTISING RESPONSES:

Cognitive and Emotional Reactions to the ad

  • ADVERTISING EFFECTS:
  • Changes in beliefs about smoking, tobacco
  • companies
  • Changes in attitude toward smoking, tobacco
  • companies;
  • Changes in intention to initiate, increase,
  • decrease or attempt to quit smoking
  • DOMAIN-SPECIFIC
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
  • Parents’ Smoking
  • Experience
  • Reside in Tobacco-
  • Producing Region
method
Participants

125 undergraduates (66 males, 59 females)

Mean age = 20.1 years (SD = 1.33)

Procedure

Two-phase procedure, pre & post exposure, separated by two weeks

Data was collected in classrooms

Method
stimulus ads
Four stimulus ads were chosen to represent four thematic approaches

Industry Manipulation: “Advertising Executive”

Long-term Consequences: “Splode”

Smoking is Addictive: “Blueman”

Immediate Consequences: “Phlegm”

Ads were from California, Legacy’s National “truth®” campaign, Minnesota, and Virginia

Ads were interspersed with other ads from TV shows popular with the target

The order of appearance of the stimulus ads was balanced across four experimental groups

Stimulus Ads
what influences attitude toward the ad emotional responses sampling of categories
Upbeat

Playful

Energetic

Cheerful

Active

Uneasy

Troubled

Worried

Fearful

Tense

Disinterested

Dull

Bored

Dubious

Lonely

Warm

Sentimental

Emotional

Affectionate

Peaceful

What influences Attitude toward the Ad? Emotional Responses: Sampling of Categories
other potential influences considered
Inferred sincerity of Motives (Cognition):

Attributions of sponsor’s motives: (α = .84)

Smoking Status:

Compilation of three questions: (ever smoke, last 30 days, are you a current smoker)

(Uncovered 10 non-smokers who smoke!)

Social Influences: Number of friends/parents who smoke

S’s residence: Tobacco-producing region or non-tobacco producing region

Controls: Ad’s position in the stimulus tape (order), S’s prior exposure to the ad (never, some, a lot)

Other Potential Influences Considered
emotional and cognitive responses

Dependent Variables

Sincere Motives

Smoker Status

Upbeat Feelings

Tobacco Region

Warm Feelings

Parents smoke

Disinterested Feelings

Friends smoke

Uneasy Feelings

Control variables

Emotional and Cognitive Responses

Individual Differences and Emotional Responses/Inferred Motives

Independent Variables

executive ad industry manipulation
Executive Ad (Industry Manipulation)

Significant Relationships

-

Smoker Status

Sincere Motives

-

-

Upbeat Feelings

+

Tobacco Region

-

Warm Feelings

Friends smoke

-

Uneasy Feelings

blueman smoking is addictive
Blueman (Smoking is Addictive)

Significant Relationships

-

Sincere Motives

Smoker Status

Upbeat Feelings

+

Tobacco Region

-

Warm Feelings

-

Friends smoke

Uneasy Feelings

splode long term consequences
Splode (Long-term Consequences)

Significant Relationships

-

Sincere Motives

Smoker Status

+

Upbeat

+

Tobacco Region

-

Warm

Parents smoke

Friends smoke

slide18

Phlegm (Short-term Consequences)

Significant Relationships

-

Sincere Motives

Smoker Status

-

Upbeat

+

-

Warm

+

Friends smoke

slide19

Attitude toward the Ad

Effect of Individual Characteristics – significant relationships

-

Smoker Status

Attitude Toward Exec Ad

(Industry Manipulation)

+

Parents smoke

slide20

Attitude toward the Ad

Effect of Individual Characteristics – significant relationships

-

Smoker Status

Attitude twd Exec Ad

(Industry Manipulation)

+

Parents smoke

slide21

Attitude toward the Ad

Effect of Emotion/Inferred Motives – significant relationships

+

Attitude twd Exec Ad (Industry Manipulation)

Sincere Motives

+

-

+

+

Upbeat Feelings

Attitude twd Blueman Ad (Smoking is addictive)

+

-

-

Warm Feelings

+

-

Attitude twd Splode Ad (Long-term Consequences)

-

Disinterested Feelings

-

+

+

-

Attitude twd Phlegm Ad (Short-term Consequences)

Uneasy Feelings

+

beliefs post measures
Attitude Toward Smoking

Four main dimensions identified

Smoking is Harmful

Smoking is Cool

Smoking Intentions

Around Smokers

However, not all had sufficient reliability in the

pre-measure stage to analyze changes in attitude pre- and post-exposure

Beliefs: Post Measures
beliefs smoking is cool preliminary findings
Beliefs: Smoking is CoolPreliminary Findings

Attitude toward Blueman

+

Smoking Cigarettes makes young people look cool.

-

Attitude toward Splode

+

-

+

Smoker Status

+

Young people who smoke have more friends.

+

Parents smoke

+

Prior exposure

conclusions so far and next steps
Emotional responses to ads

Have significant relationships with attitude toward individual ads

Future research:

investigate effect on beliefs, intentions

pool data across ads (as appropriate) for more power

Other influences matter, too: smoking status, region, ad theme

Attitude toward smoking appears to be multidimensional, needs to be clarified

Model entire system simultaneously, incorporating advertising effects on smoking (and smoking cessation) intention

Contrast with intended effects/theme and Ss’ perception of intended effects/theme (prevention v. cessation)

Distinguish direct and indirect effects

Expand subject base to younger audience

Conclusions (so far) and Next Steps