Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Junfeng (Jim) Zhang, PhD Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health UMDNJ- School of Public Health History of Air Pollution and New Jersey Perspectives Presented at NJ Clean Air Council April 14, 2010 Public Hearing
Daytime in London, December 19521952 Particle levels – 3,000 mg/m3 Particle levels – 3,000 mg/m3 Source: National Archives
2.0 - 1.5 - 1.0 - 0.5 - - 1000 - 900 - 800 - 700 - 600 - 500 - 400 - 300 - 200 - 100 Smoke and sulphur dioxide, mg/m3 Deaths per diem Greater London, 1952 mg/m3 not ug/m3 Smoke Sulphur dioxide Deaths 15 20 25 30 5 10 15 20 November December
Pittsburg During the Pre-EPA Industrial Era U. Pittsburgh
SO2 Concentrations in NYC Coal Burning Banned in NYC EPA formed by Nixon
Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations in New Jersey 1975-2006 Second Highest Daily Average 1975 – post CAA Major improvement since the 1960’s
Figure 11 Long Term Trend in Particulate Levels State Average 1967-2006 Smoke Shade as and indicator of Particulate Matter – 10X Reduction CAA
Verdict • NJ has substantially improved Air Quality and reduced unhealthy levels of Air Pollution • Criteria Pollutants • Reductions to meet the original standards • Reductions to meet mandates of Revised Standards • Reasons • Sound implementation Plans • Regional and Local strategies
Contact with pollutant (Exposure) Dose • Poison (Health Effects)
Contact with Air Pollution • Historically – Just about anywhere • Outdoors – very high pollution levels – An important consideration since: • Houses were not well insulated – High AER led to high indoor levels from outdoor air • No Air Conditioning increased Outdoor Air Pollution indoors and increased exposure to outdoor air pollution • More Urban living in NJ • Less Travel
Contact with Air Pollution Currently • Outdoors is still dominant for some pollutants but at much lower levels • Indoors -- especially for VOCs and SVOCs, the levels will be higher than measured outdoors • Transportation • More suburban living • More in-transit time
Contact with Air Pollution Challenging Issues • Healthy Communities and Environmental Justice • Identifying problems , e.g . invisible sources under “blue sky” • “Smoking gun”– “new pollutants” • Air toxics: little actions on them • Pollution hot spots • Within a community • Living near roads
Contact with Air Pollution Future • Types of Sources Outdoors – for the foreseeable future most will be the same • Energy sources may change if the country finally gets focused on energy independence • Energy conservation and efficiency • Renewable energy and nuclear power • Fuel-efficient vehicles • Electric cars – Not environmentally neutral – may shift the pollution sources • Science, technology, public awareness, and policy