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Thyroid Problem

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in front of your neck. Along with the other glands of the endocrine system, it regulates the metabolic functions of the body by releasing thyroid hormones. This article talks about the normal functions of the thyroid as well as common thyroid disorders and their symptoms and treatments.<br>https://www.icliniq.com/articles/endocrine-diseases/be-aware-of-the-thyroid

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Thyroid Problem

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  1. Thyroid Problem

  2. Overview of Thyroid The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in front of your neck. Along with the other glands of the endocrine system, it regulates the metabolic functions of the body by releasing thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. Thyroid disorders can occur when there is too much or too less of thyroid hormone being produced by the gland. While too less of the hormones can slow down the metabolism, an excess of hormones can speed up the metabolism a lot. Although the hormonal imbalance causes a lot of disturbance, they can be well managed with medications.

  3. Thyroid Disorder

  4. Normal Functions of the Thyroid The thyroid gland absorbs iodine from our diet and combines it with an amino acid known as Tyrosine to make the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). They are involved in regulating a variety of bodily functions such as: Body temperature. Energy levels. Muscle control. Bone maintenance. Body weight. Brain development. Heart rate. Digestion. ● ● Body metabolism. Growth. Mood. ● ● ● ●

  5. Thyroid Disorders Common disorders of the thyroid involve either over or under stimulation of the gland. Hence, depending on the type of disorder, the symptoms and treatment vary. The most common disorders of the thyroid include: 1. Hyperthyroidism. 2. Hypothyroidism. 3. Goiter. 4. Thyroid nodules. 5. Graves' disease.

  6. Hyperthyroidism This is a disorder of the thyroid where the gland is overactive. In this condition, there is an overproduction of thyroid hormone. It is more common in women and those over 60 years old. An autoimmune disease known as Grave's disease is the most common cause, but there may be other reasons as well. Causes of Hyperthyroidism ● ● ● ● ● Graves' disease. Toxic nodular goiter. Thyroiditis. Consuming more than recommended quantity of iodine. Taking a higher dose of synthetic thyroid hormone.

  7. Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Restlessness. Increased heart rate. Irritability. Sweating. Weight loss. Tremors. Thinning of skin, hair, and nails.

  8. Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism ● The doctor will recommend blood tests such as T4 and TSH. But, the values that are accepted to fall in the normal range vary from one doctor to another. So, it is not wise to start medications based on the blood test findings alone. ● So, apart from blood tests, the doctor will also conduct a physical examination to palpate the thyroid gland and feel for abnormal changes in texture. He will take into account your symptoms as well. Then, an ultrasound may or may not be required to confirm the diagnosis.

  9. Treatments of Hyperthyroidism Antithyroid drugs: These drugs block the synthesis of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Different drugs are used commonly in different parts of the world. Most common antithyroid drugs include Carbimazole, Methimazole, and Propylthiouracil. Radioactive iodine: This therapy is suggested for those who cannot take medications or surgery. In this, a single dose of Iodine containing a radiation is given in the form of a capsule. Once it is swallowed, the thyroid glands take up the iodine, just like they do from food sources. But, since they contain a small amount of radiation, the thyroid cells get destroyed and they no longer produce as much iodine.

  10. Treatments of Hyperthyroidism(contd..) Surgery: Depending on the reason for surgery, and cause of the problem, the entire thyroid gland or a portion of it would be removed surgically. In case a part of the gland is being removed, the rest of the gland takes over the functioning of the gland. If the entire gland is removed, the patient will have to take synthetic thyroid hormone replacement for the rest of his life

  11. Hypothyroidism In this condition, the thyroid gland is underactive and there is an underproduction of thyroid hormone. Causes of Hyperthyroidism Hashimoto's disease: It is a genetically inherited autoimmune ● condition where the body's defense cells confuse the healthy thyroid cells to be foreign bodies and attack them causing an inflammation of the thyroid gland. This reduces the thyroid function.

  12. Causes of Hypothyroidism (contd..) Thyroid surgery for hyperthyroidism: In person's with ● hyperthyroidism, treatments such as radioactive iodine or thyroid removal surgery is performed to lower the thyroid functioning. This may sometimes cause the thyroid function to get permanently low leading to hypothyroidism. Radiation damage: Radiation therapy, as well as some medications ● used to treat certain types of cancer, can harm the thyroid cells and slow down the thyroid hormone production.

  13. Symptoms of Hypothyroidism ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Tiredness. Dry skin. Increased heart rate. Depression. Cold intolerance. Weight gain. Fatigue. Dry skin.

  14. Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism Blood tests such as T3, T4, and TSH would be ordered by the doctor to confirm the diagnosis of hypothyroidism if the patient presents with the above-mentioned common symptoms. In the case of hypothyroidism, there would be elevated levels of TSH and low levels of T3 and T4. So, the diagnosis is made based on the symptoms and blood test findings. Treatment of Hypothyroidism Synthetic thyroid hormone pills: The synthetic form of the hormone is known as Levothyroxine. Levothyroxine medicine is prescribed in different strengths according to the individual's need. It reverses the signs and symptoms of the disease. It is it to be taken lifelong. But, it is important to follow up with your treating doctor at regular intervals as the dosage will need to be adjusted from time to time.

  15. Goiter Goiter is a non-cancerous, abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is more common in women than in men. It is of different types based on the cause. Causes of Goiter ● Iodine deficiency: Iodine is necessary for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. Lack of sufficient iodine in the diet causes thyroxine levels to go down and TSH to rise. ● Iodine excess: Excess of iodine from seafood, table salt, etc., can also ironically cause symptoms similar to iodine deficiency goiter.

  16. Symptoms of Goiter ● ● ● ● ● Neck swelling. Breathing difficulty. Swallowing difficulty. Cough. Hoarseness of voice. Diagnosis of Goiter ● ● ● Physical examination. Blood test for thyroid hormones and TSH. Ultrasound of thyroid. Treatment of Goiter ● ● Iodine therapy. Surgery.

  17. Thyroid Nodules Thyroid nodules are small, harmless, benign overgrowths that can develop on the thyroid gland. They can be solid or fluid-filled. They are mostly asymptomatic. Sometimes, some symptoms may develop such as the following. Causes of Thyroid Nodules ● ● Iodine deficiency. Hashimoto's disease. Symptoms of Thyroid Nodules ● ● ● ● Neck swelling. Breathing difficulty. Swallowing difficulty. Throat pain.

  18. Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules Physical examination. Ultrasound of thyroid. Thyroid scan. FNAC. ● ● ● ● Treatment of Thyroid Nodules Sometimes, no treatment is required. If symptoms are present, one of the following may be required. ● Radioactive iodine. ● Radiation therapy. ● Surgery.

  19. Graves' disease Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease where the body's immune cells mistake the thyroid cells to be foreign substances and attack them, causing overproduction of thyroid hormones. Causes of Graves' disease ● ● ● ● Hereditary. Stress. Pregnancy. Smoking. Symptoms of Graves' disease ● ● Bulged eyes are a prominent feature. Rest of the symptoms are the same as hyperthyroidism.

  20. Diagnosis of Graves' disease Physical examination. T4 and TSH. Radioactive iodine test. ● ● ● Treatment of Graves' disease There is no cure for Graves' disease. Medicines cannot stop the immune system from continuing to attack the gland. But, symptoms can be managed with certain medications. ● Antithyroid medicines. ● Radioactive iodine. ● Beta blockers. ● Surgery.

  21. References Source Article -->> https://www.icliniq.com/articles/endocrine-diseases/be-aware-of-the- thyroid For more information consult an Endocrinologist online --> https://www.icliniq.com/ask-a-doctor-online/endocrinologist


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