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E-BUSINES and E-Commerce

E-BUSINES and E-Commerce

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E-BUSINES and E-Commerce

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  1. E-BUSINES and E-Commerce

  2. Electronic Commerce - Overview

  3. The elements of Commerce • When you get down to the actual elements of commerce and commercial transactions, we need following list of elements of for typical commerce activities. In this case, the activity is the sale if some product by a retailor to a consumer. • If you would like to sell something to a consumer, at the very core of the matter is the something itself. You must have a product or service to offer. • You must also have a place from which to sell your product. For example telephone no can be a place. • You need to figure out a way to get people to come to your place. This process is known as “Marketing”.

  4. The elements of Commerce • We must have the following elements to conduct e-commerce: • A product • A place to sell the product- in e-commerce, a web site displays the products in some way and acts as the place. • A way to get people to come to your web sites • A way to accept orders-normally on on-line form of some sort • A way to accept money- normally a merchant account handling credit card payments. This piece requires a secure ordering page and a connection to a bank. Or you may use traditional billing techniques either online or through the mail

  5. The elements of Commerce We must have the following elements to conduct e-commerce: • A fulfillment facility to ship products to customers(often outsource-able). In the case of Software and Information, however, fulfillment can occur over the web through a file download mechanism. • A way to accept returns • A way to handle warranty claims if necessary • A way to provide customer service (often through email, on-line forms, on-line knowledge bases and FAQs Etc) • In addition, there is often a strong desire to integrate other business functions or practices into the e-commerce offering. An extremely simple example –you might want to be able to show the customer the exact status of an order.

  6. The elements of Commerce The Lure of e-commerce The following list summarizes what might be called the “The lure of e-commerce” Lower transaction costs- if an e-commerce site is implemented well, the web can significantly lower both order-taking costs up front and customer services cost after the sale by automating process. Large purchase per transaction – Amazon offers a feature that no normal store offers. When you read the description of a book, you also can see “ what other people who order this book also purchased”. That is, you can see the related books that people are actually buying. Because of the feature like these it is common for people to buy more books that might buy at a normal bookstore. Integration into business cycle: A web site that is well integrated into the business cycle can offer customer more information that previously available. For example, if Dell tracks each computer through the manufacturing and shipping process, customer can see exactly where their order is at any time.

  7. What is Electronic Commerce? • EC defined from these perspectives • Communications • Business process • Service • Online • Collaborations • Community • Electronic commerce encompasses the entire online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing, and paying for products and services transacted on internetworked, global marketplaces of customers, with the support of a worldwide network of business partners.

  8. Electronic Commerce (EC) from communication perspective: e-commerce is a delivery of information, products/services, or payments via telephone line, computer network or any other means. • E-commerce from business process: E-Commerce is the application of technology towards automation of business transaction and workflows.

  9. E-Commerce from service perspective: E-Commerce is a tool that addresses the desire of firms, consumers, and management to cut services costs while improving the quality of goods and increasing the speed of service delivery. • From online perspective, e-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products and information on the Internet and other services.

  10. What E-commerce offers? People can shop in different ways: Traditional mail order companies introduced the concept of shopping from home in your pajamas, and e-commerce offers this same luxury. New feature that web site offers includes: • The ability to build an order in several days • The ability to configure products and see actual price • The ability to compare prices between multiple vendors easily • The ability to easily build complicated custom orders • The ability to search large catalogs easily Improved customer interactions: with automated tools it is possible to interact with customer in richer ways at virtually no cost. For example, the customer might get an e-mail when the order is confirmed, when the order is shipped and after the order arrives.

  11. What is Electronic Business? • E-business is a broader definition of EC that includes not just the buying and selling of goods and services, but also • Servicing customers • Collaborating with business partners • Conducting electronic transactions within an organization • E-Business = E-Commerce + CRM + SCM • CRM = Customer Relationship Management • SCM = Supply Chain Management

  12. Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction • Business-to-business (B2B) : EC model in which all of the participants are businesses or other organizations • Business-to-consumer (B2C): EC model in which businesses sell to individual shoppers • Business-to-business-to-consumer (B2B2C): EC model in which a business provides some product or service to a client business; the client business maintains its own customers, to whom the product or service is provided

  13. Classification of EC by the Nature of the Transaction (cont.) • Consumer-to-business(C2B): individuals who use the Internet to sell products or services to organizations and /or seek sellers to bid on products or services they need • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) : consumers sell directly to other consumers

  14. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal Electronic Transaction Act 2061 BS(2004 AD)

  15. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal ljB'tLo sf/f]af/ ;DaGwdf Joj:yf ug{ ag]sf] cWofb]z • k|:tfjgfM ljB'tLo tYofÍ cfbfg—k|bfgsf] dfWodaf6 jf cGo s'g} ljB'tLo ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 x'g] sf/f]af/nfO{ e/kbf]{ / ;'/lIft agfO{ ljB'tLo clen]vsf] l;h{gf, pTkfbg, k|zf]wg, ;~ro, k|jfx tyf ;Dk|]if0f k|0ffnLsf] dfGotf, ;Totf, cv08tf / ljZj;gLotfnfO{ k|df0fLs/0f tyf lgoldt ug]{ Joj:yf ug{ / ljB'tLo clen]vnfO{ cglws[t ta/af6 k|of]u ug{ jf To:tf] clen]vdf u}/sfg"gL tj/af6 kl/jt{g ug]{ sfo{nfO{ lgoGq0f ug{sf nflu tTsfn sfg"gL Joj:yf ug{ jf~5gLo ePsf] / xfn ;+;bsf] clwj]zg gePsf]n], • g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] wf/f &@ cg';f/ of] cWofb]z hf/L] गरियको छ .

  16. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal kl/R5]b —! k|f/lDes • !=;+lIfKt gfd, lj:tf/ / k|f/DeM -!_ o; cWofb]zsf] gfd æljB'tLo -On]S6«f]lgs_ sf/f]af/ cWofb]z, @)^!Æ /x]sf] 5 . • -@_ of] cWofb]z t'/Gt k|f/De x'g]5 . • -#_ of] cWofb]z g]kfn clw/fHoe/ nfu" x'g]5 / of] cWofb]zsf] pNn+3g u/L s;"/ ug]{ hxfF;'s} /x] a;]sf] JolQm ;d]tnfO{ of] cWofb]z nfu" x'g]5 . • @=kl/efiffM ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o; cWofb]zdf,— • -s_ æPl;d]l6«s ls|K6f]l;:6dÆeGgfn] l8lh6n x:tfIf/ ;[hgf ug]{ lghL ;fFrf] / l8lh6n x:tfIf/sf] ;Dk'li6 ug]{ ;fj{hlgs ;fFrf] ;dfj]z ePsf] Ps ;'/lIft hf]8L ;fFrf] pTkGg ug]{ k|0ffnL ;Demg' k5{ .

  17. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • -v_ æOhfhtkqÆ eGgfn] bkmf !* sf] pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhd k|fKt u/]sf] Ohfhtkq ;Demg' k5{ . • -u_ æpTklQstf{Æ eGgfn] ljB'tLo clen]v pTkGg ug]{, hDdf ug]{ jf ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ JolQm ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] To:tf] sfo{ cGo s'g} JolQmnfO{ ug{ nufpg] JolQm ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 . • t/ ;f] zAbn] dWo:ystf{ -OG6/ldl8o/L_ nfO{ hgfpg] 5}g . • -3_ æsDKo'6/Æ eGgfn] ljB't—r'DasLo jf b[Zout cfj]ux? kl/rfng u/]/ tfls{s, cÍul0ftLo / :d/0fut sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{ ljB't—r'DasLo, b[Zout jf cGo pRr ultsf] tYofÍ k|zf]wg ug]{ ;+oGq jf k|0ffnL ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] s'g} sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL jf sDKo'6/ g]6js{df sDKo'6/;Fu hf]l8Psf jf ;Da4 /x]sf ;Dk"0f{ cfut -OGk'6_ lgu{t -cfp6k'6_, k|zf]wg, ;~ro ug]{ sfo{ tyf sDKo'6/ ;km\6j]o/ jf ;~rf/ ;'ljwf ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .

  18. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • -ª_ æsDKo'6/ tYofÍ cfwf/Æ -sDKo'6/ 8f6fj];_ eGgfn] sDKo'6/, sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL jf sDKo'6/ g]6js{df k|of]u ug]{ p2]Zon] cIf/, 5lj, Wjlg jf >Jo b[Zodf cf}krfl/s tj/n] tof/ kfl/+b} u/]sf] jf tof/ ul/Psf] jf sDKo'6/, sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL jf sDKo'6/ g]6js{åf/f pTkfbg ul/Psf] ;"rgf, 1fg tyf cjwf/0ff jf lgb]{zgsf] k|:t'tLs/0f ;Demg' k5{ . • -r_ æsDKo'6/ g]6js{Æ eGgfn] Ps csf{;+u cGt/—cfa4 jf ;~rf/ ;Dks{df /x]sf b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf a9L sDKo'6/x?sf] cGt/—;Da4tf ;Demg' k5{ . • -5_ æsDKo'6/ k|0ffnLÆ eGgfn] cfut / lgu{t ;xfotf ;+oGqx? nufotsf] sDKo'6/ sfo{qmdx?, ljB'tLo lgb]{zgx?, cfut / lgu{t tYofÍx? ;dflji6 ePsf] / tfls{s, c+sul0ftLo, tYofÍ ;+ro tyf k'gM k|flKt, ;~rf/ / lgoGq0f nufotsf sfo{x? ;Dkfbg ug]{ s'g} ;+oGq jf ;+oGqsf] ;d"x ;Demg' k5{ .

  19. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • -h_ æsDKo'6/ ;DkbfÆ -sDKo'6/ l/;f]];{_ eGgfn] sDKo'6/, sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL, sDKo'6/ g]6js{, tYofÍ, sDKo'6/ tYofÍ cfwf/ jf ;km\6j]o/ ;Demg' k5{ . • -em_ æu|fxsÆ -;A:s|fOj/_ eGgfn] bkmf #! sf] pkbkmf -#_ adf]lhd k|df0fkq k|fKt u/]sf] JolQm ;Demg' k5{ . • -`_ æhf]8L ;fFrf]Æ -sL k]o/_ eGgfn] s'g} Pl;d]l6«s ls|K6f]l;:6ddf /x]sf] lghL ;fFrf] / To:tf] ;fFrf]n] l;h{gf ug]{ l8lh6n x:tfIf/sf] hfFr ;fj{hlgs ;fFrf]n] ug{ ;Sg] tTj ePsf] ;f] lghL ;fFrf]sf] ul0ftLo ?kdf cGt/ cfa4 ;fj{hlgs ;fFrf]sf] hf]8L ;Demg' k5{ .

  20. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • -6_ ætYofÍÆ eGgfn] cf}krfl/s tj/n] tof/ u/L sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL jf sDKo'6/ g]6js{df k|zf]wg ug]{ p2]Zon] /flvPsf] jf k|zf]wg ul/Psf] jf sDKo'6/sf] :d/0fdf hDdf ul/Psf] h'g;'s} :j?kdf /x]sf ;"rgf, 1fg, tYo, cjwf/0ff jf lgb]{zgsf] k|:t'tLs/0f ;Demg' k5{ . • -7_ æGofoflws/0fÆ eGgfn] bkmf ^) adf]lhd u7g ePsf] ;"rgf k|ljlw Gofoflws/0f ;Demg' k5{ . • -8_ ælghL ;fFrf]Æ -k|fOe]6 sL_ eGgfn] l8lh6n x:tfIf/ l;h{gf ug{ k|of]u ul/Psf] s'g} hf]8L ;fFrf]sf] Ps ;fFrf] ;Demg' k5{ .

  21. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • kl/R5]b— ( • sDKo'6/ ;DaGwL s;"/ • $$= sDKo'6/ >f]t ;Í]tsf] rf]]/L, gi6 jf kl/jt{g ug{]M k|rlnt sfg"gn] sDKo'6/ >f]tsf] ;Í]t -;f];{ sf]8_ nfO{ oyfjt\ /fVg] u/L tTsfn Joj:yf u/]sf] cj:yfdf s'g} JolQmn] s'g} sDKo'6/, sDKo'6/ sfo{qmd, sDKo'6/ k|0ffnL jf sDKo'6/ g]6js{sf nflu k|of]u x'g] sDKo'6/ >f]tsf] ;+s]t -;f];{ sf]8_ nfO{ hfgL hfgL jf ablgot /fvL rf]/L u/]df, gi6 u/]df, kl/jt{g u/]df jf To:tf] sfd ug{ nufPdf lghnfO{ tLg jif{;Dd s}b jf b'O{ nfv ?k}of ;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 . • :ki6Ls/0fM o; bkmfsf] k|of]hgsf nflu æsDKo'6/ >f]t ;Í]tÆ -sDKo'6/ ;f];{ sf]8_ eGgfn] sDKo'6/ sfo{qmdx?sf] ;"rLs/0f, sDKo'6/ lgb{]zg -sdfG8_ , sDKo'6/ l8hfOg / sDKo'6/ n]cfp6 tyf sDKo'6/ ;Dkbfsf] h'g;'s} :j?kdf /x]sf] sfo{qmd ljZn]if0f -k|f]u|fd Pgflnl;;_ nfO{ ;Demg' k5{ .

  22. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • sDKo'6/ ;fdu|Ldf cglws[t kx'FrM s'g} JolQmn] s'g} sDKo'6/df /x]sf] s'g} sfo{qmd, ;"rgf jf tYofÍdf kx'Fr k|fKt ug]{ dg;foaf6 ;f] sDKo'6/sf] wgL jf lhDd]jf/ JolQmaf6 s'g} clVtof/L glnO{ ;f] sDKo'6/sf] k|of]u u/]df jf clVtof/L lnPsf] cj:yfdf klg clVtof/L lbOPsf] eGbf leGg s'g} sfo{qmd, ;"rgf jf tYofÍdf kx'Fr k|fKt ug]{ p2]Zon] s'g} sfo{ u/]df lghnfO{ s;"/sf] uDeL/tf x]/L b'O{ nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf tLg jif{;Dd s}b jf b'a} ;hfo x'g]5 . • $^= sDKo'6/ / ;"rgf k|0ffnLdf Iflt k'¥ofpg]Ms'g} JolQmn] s'g} ;+:yfnfO{ unt tl/sfn] xfgL gf]S;fgL k'/\ofpg] dg;fo /fvL hfgL hfgL sDKo'6/ ;Dkbfdf /x]sf] s'g} ;"rgfnfO{ s'g} klg Joxf]/faf6 gi6 u/]df, Iflt k'/\ofPdf, d]6fPdf, x]/km]/ u/]df, sfd gnfUg] agfPdf jf To:tf] ;"rgfsf] d"No / k|of]usf] dxTjnfO{ x|f; u/fPdf jf xflgsf/s k|efj kf/]df jf s;}nfO{ To:tf] sfd ug{ nufPdf lghnfO{ b'O{ nfv ?k}+of;Dd hl/jfgf jf tLg jif{;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 .

  23. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • -$&= ljB'tLo :j?kdf u}/sfg"gL s'/f k|sfzg ug]{M -!_ sDKo'6/, OG6/g]6 nufotsf ljB'tLo ;~rf/ dfWodx?df k|rlnt sfg"gn] k|sfzg tyf k|b{zg ug{ gx'g] egL /f]s nufPsf ;fdu|Lx? jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstf, lzi6frf/ lj?4sf ;fdfu|L jf s;}k|lt 3[0ff jf å]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft hflt / ;Dk|bfo aLrsf] ;'dw'/ ;DaGwnfO{ vnn kfg]{ lsl;dsf ;fdfu|Lx? k|sfzg jf k|bz{g ug]{ jf ug{ nufpg] JolQmnfO{ Ps nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf kfFr jif{;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 . • -@_ s'g} JolQmn] pkbkmf -!_ adf]lhdsf] s;"/ k6s k6s u/]df k|To]s k6s cl3Nnf] k6s ePsf] ;hfosf] 8]9L ;hfo x'g]5 . • बिस्तजानकारि को लागि साइबर ल २०६१ को सहयोग लिनु होला। धन्यबाद ।

  24. Regulatory status of e-commerce in Nepal • $*= uf]kgLotf eË ug]{M of] cWofb]z jf o; cWofb]z cGtu{t ag]sf lgodx? jf k|rlnt sfg"gdf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s of] cWofb]z jf o; cWofb]z cGtu{t ag]sf lgodx? cGtu{t k|bfg ul/Psf] s'g} clwsf/ adf]lhd s'g} ljB'tLo clen]v, lstfa, /lhi6/, kqJojxf/, ;"rgf, sfuhft jf cGo ;fdfu|Lx?df kx'Fr k|fKt u/]sf] s'g} JolQmn] s'g} cglws[t JolQmnfO{ To:tf] clen]v, lstfa, /lhi6/, kqJojxf/, ;"rgf, sfuhft jf ;fdu|Lsf] uf]kgLotf eË u/]df jf eË ug{ nufPdf lghnfO{ s;"/sf] dfqf x]/L Ps nfv ?k}ofF;Dd hl/jfgf jf b'O{ jif{;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 .

  25. Mobile Commerce

  26. Some definition Definition: “E-commerce over mobile devices” – (Robinson-Humphreys) “The use of mobile handheld devices to communicate, interact via an always –on high speed connection to the internet” – (Forrester) • Examples of M-commerce • Purchasing movie Tickets • Purchasing airlines Tickets • Hotel Booking and reservation • Restaurant booking and reservation • Searching for goods and services • Information customers for payback schedules and pay amount • Agenda of meeting

  27. M-commerce services • Information –Based services • Instant messaging • E-mail • Searching for movies using cell phone or handheld PDAs. • Eg. Google in AirTel, Euddy Etc. • Transaction-based services • Purchasing stocks, concert tickets, music or games • Searching for best prices for an item using a cell phone and buying it in a physical store or on the web. • Personalized services • Services that anticipate what a customer wants based on that person’s location or data profiles, such as update airlines flight information.

  28. M-Commerce Vs E-commerce

  29. Application Areas • Finance services • Mobile banking • Wireless e-payment system • Micropayment • Wireless bill payment

  30. M-commerce Challenges, Obstacles, Limitations and issues Data transfer speed of cellular networks is comparatively slow, resulting in higher cost to customer. Cellular phones have limited memory and power suppliers. More web sites need to be designed specially for small wireless devices in account of its small screen and keyboard awkward to use. In case of payment through mobile is still unsecured. M-commerce obstacles • Complex standardization process • Multitude of network technologies • Infrastructure investment • Demand and uncertainty • Slow than anticipated WAP adoption

  31. The Benefits of EC • Benefits to Organizations • Expands the marketplace to national and international markets • Decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing and retrieving paper-based information • Allows reduced inventories and overhead by facilitating pull-type supply chain management The pull-type processing allows for customization of products and services which provides competitive advantage to its implementers

  32. The Benefits of EC • Benefits to Organizations • Reduces the time between the outlay of capital and the receipt of products and services • Supports business processes reengineering (BPR) efforts • Lowers telecommunications cost - the Internet is much cheaper than value added networks (VANs)

  33. Benefits of EC (cont.) • Benefits to consumers • Enables consumers to shop or do other transactions 24 hours a day, all year round from almost any location( 7× 24) (52 × 24) (365 × 24) • Provides consumers with more choices • Provides consumers with less expensive products and services by allowing them to shop in many places and conduct quick comparisons • Allows quick delivery of products and services (in some cases) especially with digitized products

  34. Benefits of EC (cont.) • Benefits to consumers • Consumers can receive relevant and detailed information in seconds, rather than in days or weeks • Makes it possible to participate in virtual auctions • Allows consumers to interact with other consumers in electronic communities and exchange ideas as well as compare experiences • Facilitates competition, which results in substantial discounts

  35. Benefits of EC (cont.) • Benefits to society • Enables more individuals to work at home, and to do less traveling for shopping, resulting in less traffic on the roads, and lower air pollution • Allows some merchandise to be sold at lower prices, benefiting less affluent people • Enables people in Third World countries and rural areas to enjoy products and services which otherwise are not available to them • Facilitates delivery of public services at a reduced cost, increases effectiveness, and/or improves quality

  36. The Limitations of EC • Technical limitations • There is a lack of universally accepted standards for quality, security, and reliability • The telecommunications bandwidth is insufficient • Software development tools are still evolving • There are difficulties in integrating the Internet and EC software with some existing (especially legacy) applications and databases. • Special Web servers in addition to the network servers are needed (added cost). • Internet accessibility is still expensive and/or inconvenient