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1840s & 50s: The Age of Crisis. Mr. Pieper. Qualms with Missouri Compromise. North: “Congress is enabling slavery” South: “Congress is ruling on slavery within the states” After expansion- the issue of slavery in new territories is the central issue in Congress. Popular Sovereignty.

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qualms with missouri compromise
Qualms with Missouri Compromise
  • North: “Congress is enabling slavery”
  • South: “Congress is ruling on slavery within the states”
  • After expansion- the issue of slavery in new territories is the central issue in Congress
popular sovereignty
Popular Sovereignty
  • Democrats (pro-slavery) want popular sovereignty- leaving slavery up to the states
  • Wilmot Proviso- bill that would ban slavery in all lands acquired from Mexico- the bill is rejected
    • Almost all Northern states approve
    • Southern states threaten to secede if it is approved
      • Secede- withdraw from the United States
1848 election
1848 Election
  • Zachary Taylor- runs for president- slave owner and hero of Mexican War
  • Free Soil Party- anti-slavery party that would prohibit expansion of slavery into new territories-
    • Free soil party was a sign that slavery issue could not be ignored
  • California wants to enter the Union as a free state
  • New Mexico wants to enter as a slave state
  • Texas was a HUGE state that wanted to enter as a slave state- Northerners wanted to make Texas smaller to limit its power
  • South wants tougher fugitive slave laws
    • North wanted states to be free from being forced to help recapture escaped slaves
compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
  • Henry Clay returned to Congress after many years looking for Compromise between North and South
  • 1. Wanted to admit California as a free state
  • 2. Wanted to stop the slave trade
  • 3. Wanted to split Texas, New Mexico and Utah into three states
  • 4. Wanted a tougher fugitive slave law
  • 5. Ended slave ties in Washington D.C.
reactions to clay s compromise
Reactions to Clay’s Compromise
  • 1. Northern abolitionists wanted to break up the Union
  • 2. Fire-eaters- a group of southern politicians who held extreme pro-slavery views wanted to secede
  • 3. Fire-eaters wanted federal law to protect slavery
great debate in congress
Great Debate in Congress
  • John C. Calhoun- fire-eater who wanted a dual presidency- one president for the South and one president for the North
  • “If something decisive is not now done…the South will be forced to choose between abolition and secession…The responsibility of saving the Union rests on the North, and not the South”

-John C. Calhoun, 1850 (shortly before his death)

the art of propaganda
The Art of Propaganda
  • Card-stacking: Giving a one-sided view of the issues
  • Name-calling: using offensive and often misleading labels to opponents
  • Sloganeering: repetition of catchy statements instead of well-reasoned arguments
  • Bandwagoning: demanded support for a cause merely because its popular
create two political cartoons
Create two political cartoons
  • 1. Represents the Northern point-of-view
  • 2. Represents the Southern point-of-view
  • 3. Explain how the cartoon symbolizes the issues being debated in the 1850s
  • 4. Use two different propaganda techniques
  • 5. Explain the strategies used in your cartoons
election of franklin pierce
Election of Franklin Pierce
  • Franklin Pierce: (D-New Hampshire) supported the 1850 Compromise; elected as president
  • Weak leader; cabinet pushed him around
  • Abolitionists called him “a northern man with southern principles”
the kansas nebraska act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Stephen Douglass (D-Ill)- supported railroad to the west to help settlement
    • Re-opened issue of slavery in new territories

Kansas-Nebraska Act- organized new states under popular sovereignty which went against the Missouri Compromise- no slavery above 35th parallel

kansas nebraska act
Kansas-Nebraska Act
  • Abolitionists argued that if slavery were allowed in Northern territory, white workers would be forced out
bleeding kansas
“Bleeding Kansas”
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act created a battle in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces for control over the state
  • New Englanders flocked to Kansas under the aid of Emigrant Aid Company
  • Southerners retaliated by encouraging pro-slavery people to move to Kansas
bleeding kansas1
“Bleeding Kansas”
  • During 1855 election, there was a lot of controversy in Kansas
    • Douglas, Kansas- town with 30 residents cast 200 votes
    • Threats to hang voting officials were made public
    • Missouri Residents wandered into Kansas to cast votes
    • As a result of controversy, Kansas ended up with two territorial governments (pro-slavery and anti-)
    • Lecompton- pro-slavery
    • Topeka- anti-slavery
bleeding kansas2
“Bleeding Kansas”
  • Violent mobs gathered in Kansas
  • John Brown, an abolitionist led a mob including many Creek Indians murdering five men while they were sleeping
  • Newspapers published headlines that read “Bleeding Kansas”
impact of bleeding kansas
Impact of “Bleeding Kansas”
  • Congressmen debated what to do with “Bleeding Kansas” in the Nation’s Capitol
  • Charles Sumner was caned by Preston Brooks
outcome of bleeding kansas
Outcome of “Bleeding Kansas”
  • Anti-slavery supporters boycotted the constitutional convention
  • At the convention, the Lecompton Constitution was passed, protecting the right to bring slaves to Kansas-nothing about ownership
  • 1861- Kansas enters as a free state
antislavery literature
Antislavery Literature
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1850): by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a novel that proved to be significant in abolitionist movement
    • Depicted slavery as morally wrong
    • 300,000 copies sold in 9 months
    • 2 million+ sold in the 1850s
    • The book was banned in many parts of the South

12 Years a Slave (1853)

the fugitive slave act
The Fugitive Slave Act
  • 1. Made it illegal to aid in the escape of runaway slaves
  • 2. Authorized the arrest of runaway slaves in free states
  • The North was extremely angry
  • “We saw…a man on horseback, riding at a quick pace, & by his side a tall negro coming steadily along…We saw one chain going from his wrists to the saddle, another was around his ankles-giving him just room enough to walk-following them were two large thick-headed fierce-looking dogs”
dred scott and the supreme court
Dred Scott and the Supreme Court
  • In 1846, Dred Scott, a slave held by John Emerson who sued for his freedom after his slave owner passed away in Missouri
  • He argued that his prior residences in the free state of Illinois and in Wisconsin Territory entitled him to freedom
  • Missouri Courts has already rules in favor of slaves on this issue
dred scott
Dred Scott
  • Missouri Chief Justice Robert Taney, was one of five justices against Scott’s plea
  • Taney declared:
  • 1. All slaves are not considered citizens-therefore Scott can’t bring suit to court
  • 2. African Americans, freee or enslaved do not have any rights
  • 3. Slaves are equal to “mules”, property that can’t be taken away from white men- MO Compromise violates 5th amendment- and is void
  • Dred Scott decision rallied abolitionists
reactions to dred scott decision
Reactions to Dred Scott Decision
  • “This atrocious decision furnishes final confirmation of the already well-known fact that, under the Constitution and government of the United States, the colored people are nothing and can be nothing but an alien, disfranchised [deprived of rights], and degraded citizens.”
    • Robert Purvis

After Dred Scott, there seemed no way to stop the spread of slavery in new territories

the rise of radical republicans
The Rise of Radical Republicans
  • Abolitionists revived the Republican Party
  • Congressional elections of 1854 and 1856 focused on the issue of slavery
  • 1856 James Buchanan (D-PA) becomes president
lincoln and douglas
Lincoln and Douglas
  • In 1858 Abraham Lincoln (R-Illinois) ran for Senate against incumbent- candidate running for re-election- Stephen Douglas
  • Douglas- nicknamed “The Little Giant”because of his short stature but political clout
a house divided
A House Divided
  • During the election Lincoln cited the bible saying:
    • “A house divided against itself cannot stand”
    • “I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect that it will cease to be divided”
    • Although he lost this election, Lincoln’s speech won over many Republicans
john brown s raid
John Brown’s Raid
  • The year after the Lincoln-Douglas debates, John Brown resurfaced
  • In October, Brown’s militia seized a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Va and planned to liberate enslaved African Americans
  • Within a month, Brown was captured by Robert E. Lee and was convicted of treason and hanged to death
impact of john brown s raid
Impact of John Brown’s Raid
  • Some people questioned his sanity
  • Supporters believe he act justly and heroically
  • Writer Lydia Maria Child called him “a martyr to righteous principles”
  • Southerners were alarmed by the threat of slave revolts
the presidential election of 1860
The Presidential Election of 1860
  • Democrats nominated John Breckinridge-viewed that b/c Dred Scott, govt. should protect slavery
  • Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, a moderate choice- NOT an abolitionist
  • Constitutional Union Party(3rd party) Nominated John Bell- concerned w/ preventing Secession
the election of 1860
The Election of 1860
  • Election results mirrored the sectional divide of the country
  • Despite Lincoln’s moderate stance on slavery, Southerners viewed his victory as a victory for abolition.
  • Within days, South Carolina voted to leave the Union.
  • Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas soon did the same
  • In 1861, these 7 states drafted a constitution for the Confederate States of America
confederate state of america
Confederate State of America
  • This constitution was similar to the US Constitution with two exceptions
    • 1. The Confederate States guaranteed the right to own slaves
    • 2. It stressed that each state was sovereign and independent
    • The states chose Jefferson Davis as president of the Confederacy
      • Mississippi planter and former US Secretary of war
which 5 events had the biggest impact on secession
Which 5 events had the biggest impact on Secession?
  • Make a timeline that displays these five events (we need to know the years).
  • Be ready to explain WHY these were most impactful