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Protein Synthesis Test – Tomorrow!. Meiosis. Similarities and Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis. Mitosis Review. IPMAT Remember: Mi t osis = T wo Cells “ T ea for T wo”. Reasons for Mitosis. Production of 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical Provides:

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Presentation Transcript
mitosis review
Mitosis Review
  • IPMAT
  • Remember:

Mitosis = Two Cells

“Tea for Two”

reasons for mitosis
Reasons for Mitosis
  • Production of 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical
  • Provides:
    • a) a means of asexual reproduction for unicellular organisms
    • b) replacement of worn out and damaged cells
    • c) growth of an organism
meiosis1
Meiosis
  • Special type of cell division that produces haploid (n) sex cells (gametes)
  • Meiosis is divided into 2 stages: Meiosis I and Meiosis II
  • Consists of 1 replication and 2 divisions
formation of gametes
Formation of gametes

46

46

23

23

How many chromosomes will baby have?

germ cells
Germ Cells
  • Male
    • Sperm producing machines
    • Germ cells are found in the lining of the seminiferous tubules (250m in each testicle)
    • Once they reach maturity, they constantly divide (Spermatogenesis)
  • Female
    • Germ cells - found in follicles in ovaries and produced before birth
    • Cells are suspended in Prophase I and don’t continue to divide until puberty
    • Complete their division after being simulated by hormones during the menstrual cycle (Oogenesis)
slide15

Male

Female

interphase i
Interphase I

Early Interphase I

Late Interphase I

  • Period of growth of germ cells
  • DNA replicates
prophase i
Prophase I
  • Nuclear envelope disappears
  • Replicated chromatin coils into chromatid pairs
  • Centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell and start producing protein fibers that form the spindle
prophase i1
Prophase I
  • Synapsis
    • Chromatid pairs attach to form tetrads
  • Crossing over
    • During synapsis, arms of chromatid pairs exchange segments of DNA at chiasma
    • Increases genetic diversity
prophase i2
Prophase I

Early Prophase I

Late Prophase I

meiosis i metaphase i
Meiosis I – Metaphase I
  • Tetrads line up at the equator of spindles
meiosis i anaphase i
Meiosis I – Anaphase I
  • Tetrads separate in an event called disjunction
  • Chromatid pairs are pulled to poles of cell
  • Cleavage furrow begins to form
meiosis i telophase i
Meiosis I – Telophase I
  • Cleavage furrow formation is complete and cytokinesis occurs
  • Nuclear envelope reappears
meiosis ii prophase ii
Meiosis II – Prophase II
  • Most cells skip Interphase II and proceed right into Prophase II
  • Meiosis II follows the stages of Mitosis
differences of meiosis and mitosis
Differences of Meiosis and Mitosis
  • Synapsis
    • Happens in Prophase I
    • Tetrad formation
  • Crossing over
    • Happens in Prophase I
    • Arms of chromatids in a tetrad swap DNA
    • Increases genetic diversity
  • Disjunction
    • Happens in Anaphase I
    • Tetrads separate and chromatid pairs are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
    • Non-Disjunction
    • Happens in Anaphase I
    • A tetrad does not separate and sex cells are formed with abnormal chromosome numbers
in which phases will these terms be present
In which phases will these terms be present?
  • Chromatin
  • Replicated Chromatin
  • Chromatid Pairs
  • Tetrads
  • Chromosomes