FTCE SAE Biology Preparation Course Instructor Valerie Ruwe email@example.com
Session Norms • No side bars • Work on assigned materials only • Keep phone on vibrate only • If a call must be taken please leave the room to do so
Session Agenda • Session I: Pre-Test, Competencies 1 & 2 • Session II: Competencies 3,4 • Session III: Competencies 5,6 • Session IV: Competencies 7,8 • Session V: Competencies 9,10
7. Knowledge of the structural and functional diversity of protists, fungi, and plants10 % • Identify major types of protists, fungi, and plants. • Characterize the relationships of protists, fungi, and plants to other living things. • Distinguish between the structures and functions of various plant tissues. • Identify the characteristics of vascular and nonvascular plants and relate these characteristics to adaptations allowing these plants to broaden their ecological niches. • Identify the functions and survival advantages of the major organs of angiosperms and gymnosperms. • Distinguish between the structures of monocots and dicots (e.g., seeds, vascular bundles, venation, flower parts). • Identify the major mechanisms (e.g., transport, storage, conservation) in plants and evaluate the survival advantages these mechanisms give to different groups of plants. • Analyze the role of major plant growth regulators. • Apply concepts of major methods of reproduction in plants, including dispersal mechanisms. • Analyze patterns of alternation of generations in various groups of plants and algae.
Identify major types of protists, fungi, and plants. • Protist can be single cell or multicellular • Some protists are photoautotrophic, primary producers that undergo photosynthesis, and others are heterotrophs, consumers of other organisms. • There are even those who are mixotrophs, which means that they act as both photoautotrophs and heterotrophs.
Identify major types of protists, fungi, and plants. • Fungi are organisms which typically cannot move, which cannot make their own food (heterotrophic), and which contain a chemical known as chitin in their cell walls. • They can be multicellular or unicellular, with the unicellular organisms having relatively large cells. • Although some fungi live in salt or fresh water, most fungi are terrestrial. • Many species are saprophytic, feeding on dead organic matter. • Others are parasites which live inside or on host animals, primarily feeding on plants though a few also live on animals. The aquatic fungi are important in treating wastewater.
Identify major types of protists, fungi, and plants. • Although plants are very diverse, all plants have these basic characteristics • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Autotrophic • alternative generations in life cycle • photosynthetic by using chlorophylls a and b • have a cell wall made of cellulose
Characterize the relationships of protists, fungi, and plants to other living things.
Characterize the relationships of protists, fungi, and plants to other living things.
Distinguish between the structures and functions of various plant tissues • Dermal Tissue System• protection• prevention of water loss • Epidermis • Periderm(in older stems and roots) • Ground Tissue System• photosynthesis• food storage• regeneration • support• protection • Parenchyma tissue • Collenchyma tissue • Sclerenchymatissue • Vascular Tissue System• transport of water and minerals• transport of food • Xylem tissue • Phloem tissue
Identify the characteristics of vascular and nonvascular plants and relate these characteristics to adaptations allowing these plants to broaden their ecological niches. • Non-vascular plants is a general term for those plants without a vascular system (xylem and phloem). • Non-vascular plants do not have a wide variety of specialized tissue. Liverworts have structures that look like leaves, but they are not true leaves because they have no xylem or phloem. Likewise, mosses have no such tissues. • All plants have a life cycle with an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte, but only nonvascular plants can potentially have a dominant gametophyte generation. In these plants, the sporophytes grow from and are dependent on gametophytes for taking in water and other materials.
Identify the major mechanisms (e.g., transport, storage, conservation) in plants and evaluate the survival advantages these mechanisms give to different groups of plants. • Drying out. • Once removed from water and exposed to air, organisms must deal with the need to conserve water. • Adaptation is production of a waterproof surface (the cuticle in plants, cork layers and bark in woody trees). • Gas exchange. • Organisms that live in water are often able to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen gases through their surfaces. • These exchange surfaces are moist, thin layers across which diffusion can occur. • The plant solution to gas exchange is a new structure, the guard cells that flank openings (stomata) in the above ground parts of the plant. By opening these guard cells the plant is able to allow gas exchange by diffusion through the open stomata.
Identify the characteristics of vascular and nonvascular plants and relate these characteristics to adaptations allowing these plants to broaden their ecological niches. • Support. • specialized plant cells/tissues that support the plant. • Conduction. • A multicellular creature must do this at each cell in the body, plus move material in, out, and within the organism. • the specialized conducting tissues xylem and phloem in plants. • bryophytes also have specialized conducting cells. • Reproduction. • Organisms in water can release their gametes into the water, where the gametes will swim by flagella until they ecounter each other and fertilization happens. On land, such a scenario is not possible. • Plants have also had to deal with this, either by living in moist environments like the ferns and bryophytes do, or by developing specialized delivery systems like pollen tubes to get the sperm cells to the egg.
Identify the functions and survival advantages of the major organs of angiosperms and gymnosperms
Identify the functions and survival advantages of the major organs of angiosperms and gymnosperms • Conifers are gymnosperms get their name fromtheir cones: male cones in which the in which microspores develop; female cones in which megaspores develop. [ • The microspores develop into pollen grains that are carried by the wind to the female cones. Here each germinates into a pollen tube which grows into the tissues of the female cone until it reaches the vicinity of the egg. (In pines, this may take a year.) Then the tube ruptures and a sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form the zygote. • After fertilization, the zygote develops into a tiny embryo sporophyte plant. There are approximately 550 species of living conifers. • They include the • pines • Spruces • firs.
Identify the functions and survival advantages of the major organs of angiosperms and gymnosperms • Flowering plants, also called angiosperms, are the most numerous of all the divisions in the Plant Kingdom. • The parts of a flowering plant are characterized by two basic systems: a root system and a shoot system. • These two systems are connected by vascular tissue that runs from the root through the shoot. • The root system enables flowering plants to obtain water and nutrients from the soil. The shoot system allows plants to reproduce and to obtain food through photosynthesis.
Distinguish between the structures of monocots and dicots (e.g., seeds,vascular bundles, venation, flower parts).
Analyze the role of major plant growth regulators. • Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. • Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and, when moved to other locations, in other locations of the plant. • Hormones also determine the formation of flowers, stems, leaves, the shedding of leaves, and the development and ripening of fruit
Apply concepts of major methods of reproduction in plants, includingdispersal mechanisms
Apply concepts of major methods of reproduction in plants, includingdispersal mechanisms • Dispersal of pollen • Wind • Pollinators
Apply concepts of major methods of reproduction in plants, includingdispersal mechanisms
Apply concepts of major methods of reproduction in plants, includingdispersal mechanisms
Analyze patterns of alternation of generations in various groups of plantsand algae.
8. Knowledge of the structural and functional diversity of animals 11 % • Relate the structures of major animal tissue types to their function. • Identify major animal body plans (e.g., symmetry, coelomic character, embryonic origin). • Relate the processes of animal growth and development to early embryological development (e.g., embryonic induction, ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny). • Relate the structures to functions of circulatory and respiratory systems. • Relate the structures to functions of excretory and digestive systems. • Relate the structures to functions of endocrine and nervous systems.
8. Knowledge of the structural and functional diversity of animals 11 % • Relate the structures to functions of integumentaryand muscule- skeletal systems. • Relate the structures to functions of reproductive systems. • Relate the structures to functions of the human immune system. • Analyze the interconnectedness of animal organ systems. • Analyze the effects of feedback loops in human systems (e.g., classical vertebrate hormones, fight or flight). • Identify aspects of animal social behavior (e.g., communication and signals, dominance hierarchy, territoriality, aggression, courtship, innate and learned behavior).
Relate the structures of major animal tissue types to their function. • Tissues are made up of groups of similar cells that work together in order to perform a common function. • Animal tissues can be split up into • epithelial tissue, which consists of the outer layers of skin and internal protective coverings • connective tissue; including bone, cartilage, and blood • nervous tissue that makes up the nervous system • muscle tissue
Identify major animal body plans (e.g., symmetry, coelomic character, embryonic origin).
Identify major animal body plans (e.g., symmetry, coelomic character, embryonic origin). • the term body cavity refers to a space in the body wall. • The triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical eumetazoans can be distinguished into three types • Acoelomata • In acoelomata, the body cavity is not seen. The space between outer body wall (skin) and inner body wall (alimentary canal) is occupied by a tissue called mesenchyme. This condition is seen in flat worms (Platyhelminthes). • Pseudocoelomata • In Pseudocoelomata a false body cavity is present. It is called pseudocoelom. It is a body cavity which is not lined by mesoderm. This condition is seen in round worms (Aschelminthes). It develops from the first formed embryonic body cavity called blastocoel. • Eucoelomata (Coleomates) • In Eucoelomata a true body cavity is present. It is called coelom. It is a body cavity which is lined by mesoderm (or coelomic epithelium). This condition is seen in the remaining group of animals from annelids to vertebrates.
Identify major animal body plans (e.g., symmetry, coelomic character, embryonic origin). • In Eucoelomate bilaterally symmetrical animals, during the embryonic development, a slit called blastopore appears in the embryonic stage called blastula. • The blastopore marks the beginning of antero-posterior elongation of the embryo. Based on the fate of blastopore, Eucoelomata can be distinguished into two groups • Protostomiaand Deuterostomia. • Protostomiarepresents those animals in which the blastopore finally becomes the oral aperture (mouth). Members of phylum Annelida, phylum Arthropoda and phylum Mollusca exhibit this condition. • Deuterostomia represent those animals in which the blastomere finally forms the anus. The oral aperture appears much later as a separate slit. Members of the phylum Echinodermata and Chordata exhibit this condition.
Relate the processes of animal growth and development to early embryological development (e.g., embryonic induction, ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny). • In the early development of many tissues and organs of complex, multicellular organisms, the action of one group of cells on another that leads to the establishment of the developmental pathway in the responding tissue. • The groups of cells which influence the responding cells are termed the inducing tissue. • Since specific inducing tissues cannot act on all types of cells, those cells which can respond are referred to as competent to react to the action of a specific inducer stimulus. • Embryonic induction is considered to play an important role in the development of tissues and organs in most animal embryos, from the lower chordates to the higher vertebrates.
Relate the processes of animal growth and development to early embryological development (e.g., embryonic induction, ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny). • Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919), a physician, was so influenced by Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species that he gave up medicine and devoted himself to comparative anatomy. • He disagreed with Darwin's theory of natural selection, and suggested that the environment acted directly on organisms, producing new species. In 1868, he proposed the biogenetic law, which sought to explain evolution as a series of stages in which the new characteristics of the next animal to evolve are simply added on to the lower animal. • Briefly put, his biogenetic law stated that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny (theembryological development of a particular species repeats the evolutionary history of that species). • Modern scientists do not subscribe to the biogenetic law as postulated by Haeckel. However, there are elements of recapitulation that are important in comparative embryology.
Relate the structures to functions of circulatory and respiratory systems. • Respiration - delivers oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from them. • Lungs are ingrowths of the body wall and connect to the outside by as series of tubes and small openings. • Respiratory System Principles • Movement of an oxygen-containing medium so it contacts a moist membrane overlying blood vessels. • Diffusion of oxygen from the medium into the blood. • Transport of oxygen to the tissues and cells of the body. • Diffusion of oxygen from the blood into cells. • Carbon dioxide follows a reverse path. • The Human Respiratory System • Air enters the body through the nose, is warmed, filtered, and passed through the nasal cavity. Air passes the pharynx (which has the epiglottis that prevents food from entering the trachea. The upper part of the trachea contains the larynx. The vocal cords are two bands of tissue that extend across the opening of the larynx. After passing the larynx, the air moves into the bronchi that carry air in and out of the lungs. • Bronchi are reinforced to prevent their collapse and are lined with ciliated epithelium and mucus-producing cells. Bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes known as bronchioles. Bronchioles terminate in grape-like sac clusters known as alveoli. Alveoli are surrounded by a network of thin-walled capillaries.
Relate the structures to functions of circulatory and respiratory systems. • Functions of the Circulatory System • Respiration - delivers oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide from them • Nutrition - carries digested food substances to the cells of the body • Waste Removal - disposes of waste products and poisons that would harm the body if they accumulated • Immunity - helps protect the body from disease • Cellular Communication - the circulatory system provides a mode of transport for hormones • Thermoregulation - the circulatory system transports heat (can both warm and cool body) • The vertebrate cardiovascular system includes a heart, which is a muscular pump that contracts to propel blood out to the body through arteries, and a series of blood vessels. The upper chamber of the heart, the atrium (pl. atria), is where the blood enters the heart. Passing through a valve, blood enters the lower chamber, the ventricle. Contraction of the ventricle forces blood from the heart through an artery.
Relate the structures to functions of circulatory and respiratory systems.
Relate the structures to functions of excretory and digestive systems. • Liquid waste is removed from the body through the kidneys. • Located beside the spine in your back within your ribcage, the kidneys are small (about 10 centimeters long) reddish-brown organs that are shaped like beans. • During circulation, blood passes through the kidneys in order to deposit used and unwanted water, minerals, and a nitrogen-rich molecule called urea. The kidneys filter the wastes from the blood, forming a liquid called urine. • The kidneys funnel the urine into the bladder along two separate tubes called ureters. • The bladder stores the urine until muscular contractions force the urine out of the body through the urethra. • Each day, your kidneys produce about 1.5 liters of urine. All of it needs to be removed from your system. This occurs through urination.
Relate the structures to functions of excretory and digestive systems. • The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food • Organs that make up the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—also called the colon—rectum, and anus. • Inside these hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa. I • In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food. • The digestive tract also contains a layer of smooth muscle that helps break down food and move it along the tract. • Two “solid” digestive organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes called ducts. The gallbladder stores the liver's digestive juices until they are needed in the intestine.
Relate the structures to functions of endocrine and nervous systems. • the endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete chemical messages we call hormones. These signals are passed through the blood to arrive at a target organ, which has cells possessing the appropriate receptor. Exocrine glands (not part of the endocrine system) secrete products that are passed outside the body. Sweat glands, salivary glands, and digestive glands are examples of exocrine glands. • The pituitary gland (often called the master gland) is located in a small bony cavity at the base of the brain. A stalk links the pituitary to the hypothalamus, which controls release of pituitary hormones. The pituitary gland has two lobes: the anterior and posterior lobes. The anterior pituitary is glandular. • The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones into the blood. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and transported by axons to the posterior pituitary where they are dumped into the blood. ADH controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin is a small peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.
Relate the structures to functions of endocrine and nervous systems. • The human nervous system has two main divisions: the central nervous system (CNS), and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes the somatic motor nervous system, and the sensory nervous system. • The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. It acts as the central control region of the human nervous system, processing information and issuing commands. • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the command network the CNS uses to maintain the body's homeostasis. It automatically regulates heartbeat and controls muscle contractions in the walls of blood vessels, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. It also carries messages that help stimulate glands to secrete tears, mucus, and digestive enzymes.
Relate the structures to functions of integumentary and musculoskeletalsystems. • Skin is the body’s largest organ, making up the body’s covering. • The skin’s three layers-epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer-help the body maintain its structure; protect against INFECTION; and regulate fluids, electrolytes, and temperature. • The subcutaneous layer, innermost to the body, contains primarily adipose tissue more familiarly called body fat. • The dermis, the middle layer, provides the structure of the skin. It contains connective tissue, the SEBACEOUS GLANDS, and an abundant supply of nerves and blood vessels. • The dermis nourishes the epidermis above it and attaches to the subcutaneous layer beneath it, holding the skin in place. HAIR follicles and SWEAT GLANDS extend from the epidermis into the dermis and a bit into the subcutaneous layer.
Relate the structures to functions of integumentary and musculoskeletalsystems. • A musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals (including humans) the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. • It is made up of the body's bones (the skeleton), muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together. The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system. • This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on to each other. Muscles contract (bunch up) to move the bone attached at the joint.
Relate the structures to functions of reproductive systems. • The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contribute towards the reproductive process. • The human female reproductive system contains three main parts: the vagina, which leads from the vulva, the vaginal opening, to the uterus; the uterus, which holds the developing fetus; and the ovaries, which produce the female's ova.
Relate the structures to functions of reproductive systems. • The male reproductive system consists of the testes and a series of ducts and glands. • Sperm are produced in the testes and are transported through the reproductive ducts. • These ducts include the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct and urethra. • The reproductive glands produce secretions that become part of semen, the fluid that is ejaculated from the urethra. • These glands include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethralgl
Relate the structures to functions of the human immune system. • Our environment is full of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, pollutants, etc). Our immune system is neutralizes these invaders. • The non-specific immune response includes barriers such as skin and mucus secretions e.g. in our lungs or nose. The mucus can trap invaders and they can be flushed out. • Nonspecific cellular response includes the engulfing and lysis of invaders by phagocytes. • The inflammation reaction is also a nonspecific response.Theparacrine hormone histamine is released, making blood capillaries leaky. The blood with its white blood cells will penetrate infected tissue initiating the immune response. The specific immune response includes the the production of antibodies, their attachment to the antigen region of invadors and the final destruction of the tagged invader
Relate the structures to functions of the human immune system. • The human immune system ( image ) is organized into a host of individual cells, which arise in the bone marrow and circulate in blood and lymph. In humans the white blood cells (called leukocytes) are the agents of the immune response. The cells of the human immune system include • White blood cells that act through Phagocytosis • Phagocytes : (mostly in liver, spleen and lymph nodes) destroy invaders through phagocytosis • Macrophages : circulate in the lymph system and blood, engulf envaders (e.g. viruses or bacteria) and digest them (image) Macrophages are the first defense during an infection. Their numbers increase rapidly. • Monocytes: develop into macrophages during an infection. • Neutrophils: are similar to macrophages, i.e. they engulf invaders, however they also secrete a chemical that kills additional invaders on contact. • Eosinophils: digest invaders which are tagged by antibodies. • Lymphocytes • B-cells: produce antibodies and form memory cells. They develop in the bone marrow • T-cells: there are two types of T-cells: Cytotoxic T-cells which recognize infected cell and destroy them and T-helper cells which assist B-cells to develop antibodies.
Analyze the effects of feedback loops in human systems (e.g., classical vertebrate hormones, fight or flight). • Positive feedback mechanisms control self-perpetuating events that can be out of control and do not require continuous adjustment. • In positive feedback mechanisms, the original stimulus is promoted rather than negated. • Positive feedback increases the deviation from an ideal normal value. Unlike negative feedback that maintains hormone levels within narrow ranges, positive feedback is rarely used to maintain homeostatic functions.
Analyze the effects of feedback loops in human systems (e.g., classical vertebrate hormones, fight or flight). • In negative feedback, the hormone itself (or the result of its action) controls further hormone secretion. • Each endocrine gland tends to oversecrete its hormone, exerting more effect on the target tissue. • When the target tissue becomes too active, there is a negative effect on the endocrine gland, which then decreases its secretory action. • We can use as an example the secretion of thyroid hormones • Apituitary hormone, called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triggers secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland located in the neck. • As blood levels of these hormones rise under the effects of TSH, they act as negative feedback messengers to inhibit TSH release from the pituitary. • With less TSH, the thyroid releases less hormone and blood levels drop. .