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Course: Biology Objective: AHSGE #4 Topic: Cells M. Barkley
AHSGE #4 Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables. • Identifying scientists who contributed to the cell theory (Examples: Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, van Leeuwenhoek) • Distinguishing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Identifying various technologies used to observe cells (Examples: light microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope)
List of Key Terms / Concepts • #4-1 Greek / Latin Word Parts • #4-2 Cell Theory • #4-3 Types of Cells • #4-4 Common Features of Cells • #4-5 Functions of Organelles • #4-6 Locomotion • #4-7 Microscopes • #4-8 Cell Differentiation
#4-1 Greek / Latin Word Parts • cyt- cell • chloro- green • uni- one • multi- many
#4-2 Cell Theory The cell theory was development form the contributions of Shleiden, Shwann, and Virchow. • The cell is the basic unit of life. • All living things are made up of cells. • Cells come from existing cells.
#4-3 Types of Cells • Prokaryotes • Unicellular • No organelles* • Has a single loop of DNA • Examples: bacteria
Eukaryotes • Multi-cellular • Contains organelles • DNA inside nucleus • Examples: animals, plants, fungi, and protists
#4-4 Common Features of Cells • All cells have a selectively permeable cell membrane! (Only plant cells have cell wall too!) • All cells are filled with cytoplasm. • All cells contain DNA.
#4-5 Functions of Organelles Cell Organelles • Nucleus • E.R. • Ribosome • Mitochondria • Golgi Body • Lysosome • Vacuole • Chloroplast
Cells Alive Interactive Animation: Plant vs. Animal Cells … click on this link to view pictures of EUKARYOTIC cells with organelles and other structures labeled.
Nucleus: control center of cell, contains DNA • E.R.: transportation center, surrounds nucleus, may be rough or smooth • Ribosome: produces protein, found free or attached • Mitochondria: powerhouse of cell, site of cell respiration
Golgi Body: packaging and distribution center • Lysosome: contains digestive enzymes • Vacuole: stores water, largest organelle within plant cells • Chloroplast: green organelle within plants, site of photosynthesis
#4-6 Locomotion • Flagella: long whip like structure used for movement • Cilia: tiny hair-like projections around cells used for movement
Cilia Surrounds Paramecium.... Kingdom: Protista Characteristics: Live in aquatic environments Cilia Surrounds the Bronchiole Tubes of the Respiratory System
#4-7 Microscopes Robert Hooke named “cells” while observing a thin slice of cork in 1665… This was the beginning to many discoveries, such as the cell theory….
#4-7 Microscopes Microscope Characteristics • The higher the magnification, the larger the image will appear. • The higher the resolution, the more clear and detailed the image will be.
Types of Microscopes 1. Simple (uses 1 lens only) 2. Compound (uses 2 lenses) 3. SEM (Scanning electron microscope) Calculate the total magnification used with a compound microscope by multiplying the magnification of the eyepiece lens (10x) by the magnification of the objective lens chosen!
#4-8 Cell Differentiation • the process by which a cell becomes specialized and is “assigned” a particular function