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FTCE Chemistry SAE Preparation Course

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  1. FTCE Chemistry SAEPreparation Course Session 2 Lisa Baig Instructor

  2. Course Outline Session 1 Review Pre Test Competencies 1 & 2 Session 2 Competency 5 Session 3 Competency 3 Session 4 Competency 4 Session 5 Competencies 6, 7 and 8 Post Test

  3. Session Norms • Respect • No side bars • Work on assigned materials only • Keep phones on vibrate • If a call must be taken, please leave the room to do so

  4. Homework Review Any questions from last night?

  5. Chemistry Competencies • Knowledge of the nature of matter (11%) • Knowledge of energy and its interaction with matter (14%) • Knowledge of bonding and molecular structure (20%) • Knowledge of chemical reactions and stoichiometry (24%) • Knowledge of atomic theory and structure (9%) • Knowledge of the nature of science (13%) • Knowledge of measurement (5%) • Knowledge of appropriate laboratory use and procedure (4%)

  6. 73Li 42He11H Atomic NumberMass Number Element Symbol

  7. Two Key Numbers • Atomic Number • # of Protons in an atom • This determines the type of element you have! • If atom is electrically neutral, then the number of electrons is also equal to this number • Mass Number • # of protons + neutrons in an atom’s nucleus • Mass # - atomic # = # of neutrons

  8. How many protons, neutrons and electrons? • Iodine-128 • 4120Ca • 20882Pb4+ • 8135Br1- • Cobalt-60

  9. S Orbital • Orbital that can contain 2 electrons • Spherical in Shape

  10. P Orbitals • Orbital that can contain up to 6 electrons • Contains 3 sub-orbitals, each holding 2 electrons • “Peanut” or “Dumbbell” shaped

  11. D Orbital • Orbital that can contain up to 10 electrons • Contains 5 sub-orbitals that can each hold 2 electrons

  12. F Orbital • Orbital that can contain up to 14 electrons • Contains 7 sublevels each holding 2 electrons

  13. P S D-1 F-2

  14. This is the order used to place electrons- follow the arrows to their “end”, then move to the next arrow 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p 8s

  15. Find the Arrangements for: • Sulfur • Strontium • Copper • Lead • Radon

  16. Alkali Metals

  17. Alkali Metals • HIGHLY Reactive Metals • 1 valence electron • Filling their “S” orbital • Do not occur naturally in nature as elements • ALWAYS found in compounds • React with water with increasing violence as atomic number increases

  18. Alkaline Earth Metals

  19. Alkaline Earth Metals • 2 valence electrons • Fill their “S” orbitals • Do not occur in nature as elements • ALWAYS in compounds • Less reactive than the Alkali Metals

  20. Transition Metals Al Ga Sn In Tl Pb Bi

  21. Transitional Metals • Most have 2 valence electrons • These fill their “D” sublevels • Harder and more brittle than the other metals • High melting and boiling points • Good heat and electrical conductors • Hg- the ONLY metal to be in the liquid state at room temperature • Often have colored compounds

  22. Lanthanide Series

  23. Lanthanide Series • Elements Ce thru Lu • Once called the “Rare Earth Metals” • Fill their 4f orbitals • All elements within this section have amazingly similar chemical and physical properties • This lead to the difficulty in identification of the elements in this section

  24. Actinide Series

  25. Actinide Series • Elements Th thru Lr • Fill their 5f orbital • All elements are radioactive • Beyond Uranium, these elements have been artificially created

  26. Metalloids B Si Ge As Sb Te Po At

  27. Metalloids/Semi-Metals • All are solids at room temperature • Semi-conductors of heat and electricity • Some metal properties and non-metal properties • Fill their “P” level electrons

  28. Non-Metals

  29. Non-Metals • Poor (Non) Conductors of heat and electricity • Reactive • Diatomic Elements • Gas • Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen • Solid • Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Selenium

  30. Halogens

  31. Halogens • Diatomic Elements or found in compounds • HIGHLY Reactive • Gases= Fluorine, Chlorine • Liquid = Bromine • Solid = Astatine, Iodine

  32. Noble Gases

  33. Noble Gases • Non-Reactive • We have FORCED it to react and form compounds with Fluorine • Uses: • Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon are used for lighting • Helium is used in balloons

  34. Break Time Take a 10 minute break!

  35. Calculating C = lx v C = Speed of Light 3 x 108m/s l = wavelength v= frequency

  36. Practice What is the frequency of a wave whose wavelength is 4.5x10-5m? • C = lx v • 3x108m/s= 4.5x10-5m •v • 3x108m/s = 4.5x10-5m = 6.7 x 1012 Hz

  37. What’s a Quantum?? The amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom E = h x v E = Energy of Quantum h = 6.626 x 10-34J•s (Planck’s Constant) v = frequency of the wave

  38. Practice • What is the energy of a wave whose frequency is 2.5x10-4Hz? • E = h x v • E= (6.626 x 10-34 J•s)(2.5x10-4Hz) • E=1.65x10-37J

  39. Conversions of Mass and Energy E = mC2 E = Energy m = mass C = Speed of Light (3 x 108m/s)

  40. Practice • What is the mass of a particle whose energy is 2.41x10-27J? • E = mC2 2.41x10-27J = m (3 x 108m/s)2 2.68x10-44kg

  41. Break Time Take a 10 minute break!

  42. Unstable Nuclei Radioactive Decay Spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a smaller sized nucleus Nuclear Radiation Particles emitted by a decaying nucleus All elements above #83 on the Periodic Table

  43. Two Categories Fission When a heavy nuclei splits into more stable nuclei of intermediate mass Fusion When low mass nuclei combine to form a heavier more stable nucleus

  44. Types of Particle Decay

  45. Nuclear Reactions 4219K  0-1e + ? 4240Ca 23994Pu  ? + 23592U 42He 2713Al + 42He  3015P + ? 10n ? + 10n  14256Ba + 9136Kr + 310n 23592U

  46. Half-Lives Remaining Mass = half-life fraction Total Mass 1 = ½ 2 = ¼ 3 = 1/8 4 = 1/16 5 = 1/32 6 = 1/64 7 = 1/1288 = 1/256 # h.l = time elapsed time of 1 h.l Amount remaining = (original)(1/2)#h.l

  47. Practice How much of a 100.0g sample of Gold-198 remains after 8.10 days if its half life is 2.70 days? 12.5g A 50.0g sample of 14N decays to 12.5g in 14.4 seconds. What is its half-life? 7.2 seconds

  48. Homework • Diagnostic Exam in your AP chem Prep book- Page 17-26 • Only answer the questions for these Chapters & Questions • Chapter 5 #1, 3, 5 • Chapter 10 #32-35 • Chapter 17 #81-84