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YOUR PERSONAL “SYSTEM”. PHYSICAL & GENETIC HERITAGE PERSONALITY TRAITS COMPETENCIES & SKILLS (ABILITY) MOTIVES, NEEDS & GOALS ATTITUDES & VALUES. BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS. AGE JOB PERFORMANCE DOES NOT DECLINE WITH AGE OLDER WORKERS HAVE LOWER TURNOVER

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your personal system
YOUR PERSONAL “SYSTEM”
  • PHYSICAL & GENETIC HERITAGE
  • PERSONALITY TRAITS
  • COMPETENCIES & SKILLS (ABILITY)
  • MOTIVES, NEEDS & GOALS
  • ATTITUDES & VALUES
biographical characteristics
BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS

AGE

  • JOB PERFORMANCE DOES NOT DECLINE WITH AGE
  • OLDER WORKERS HAVE LOWER TURNOVER
  • JOB SATISFACTION INCREASES WITH AGE FOR PROFESSIONALS
  • AVOIDABLE ABSENTEEISM DECLINES WITH AGE, BUT UNAVOIDABLE ABSENTEEISM INCREASES WITH AGE

GENDER

  • NO SIGNIFICANT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN WORK PERFORMANCE
  • WOMEN HAVE HIGHER ABSENCE RATES THAN MEN

MARITAL STATUS

  • MARRIED WORKERS HAVE LOWER TURNOVER & ABSENTEEISM
  • MARRIED WORKERS ARE MORE SATISFIED WITH THEIR JOBS

TENURE (Seniority)

  • WORK EXPERIENCE (SENIORITY) IS POSITIVELY RELATED TO PRODUCTIVITY
  • SENIORITY IS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO ABSENTEEISM & TURNOVER
  • TENURE IS POSITIVELY RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION
ability the capacity to perform specific tasks
ABILITYTHE CAPACITY TO PERFORM SPECIFIC TASKS

INTELLECTUAL ABILITY (Mental)

NUMBER APTITUDE -- ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic

VERBAL COMPREHENSION -- understanding what is read or heard

PERCEPTUAL SPEED -- quick identification of similarities or differences

INDUCTIVE REASONING -- sequential (additive) problem solving

DEDUCTIVE REASONING -- distilling the implications (reducing)

SPATIAL VISUALIZATION -- imagining how something would appear

MEMORY -- ability to retain and recall information

JOBS WITH HIGH INFORMATION PROCESSING DEMANDS REQUIRE GENERAL INTELLIGENCE AND VERBAL ABILITIES

physical ability
PHYSICAL ABILITY

STRENGTH

Dynamic Strength -- repeated, continuous muscular force

Trunk Strength -- use of abdominal muscles

Static Strength -- exert force against external objects (pushing)

Explosive Strength -- expend maximum energy in one/or a series of bursts

FLEXIBILITY

Extent Flexibility -- moving trunk & back muscles as far as possible

Dynamic Flexibility -- ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements

OTHER

Body Coordination -- coordinate simultaneous actions of different body parts

Balance -- ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance

Stamina -- ability to continue maximum effort over a prolonged period

PERFORMANCE IS ENHANCED WHEN THERE IS A HIGH ABILITY-JOB FIT

personality characteristic ways we react to and interact with others
PERSONALITYCHARACTERISTIC WAYS WE REACT TO AND INTERACT WITH OTHERS

DETERMINANTS

BIOLOGICAL (HEREDITY)

CULTURAL (SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH YOU WERE RAISED)

SITUATIONAL (SPECIFIC SETTINGS)

HEREDITY ACCOUNTS FOR 50 % OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES AND MORE THAN 30 % OF OCCUPATIONAL AND LEISURE INTERESTS

INDIVIDUAL JOB SATISFACTION IS REMARKABLY STABLE OVER TIME

(Heredity  Job Satisfaction)

OUR PERSONALITY TRAITS MAY CHANGE AS OUR ENVIRONMENT CHANGES

TRAITS & TYPES

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Jung)

Big-Five Model (Digman)

Locus of Control (Rotter)

myers briggs type indicator jung myers briggs kiersey bates
MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATORJUNG, MYERS & BRIGGS, KIERSEY & BATES

FOUR DIMENSIONS TO ASSESS

EXTROVERION v. INTROVERSION

WAYS OF RELATING TO PEOPLE

SENSING v. INTUITIVE

PRACTICAL v. INNOVATIVE DECISION-MAKING

THINKING v. FEELING

IMPERSONAL v. PERSONAL DECISION-MAKING

JUDGING v. PERCEIVING

CLOSURE v. OPENNESS IN DECISION-MAKING

ONE “TYPE” IS NOT BETTER THAN THE OTHER

USUALLY WE LEAN MORE TOWARD ONE “TYPE” THAN THE OTHER

OUR “TYPE” PREFERENCES MAY CHANGE OR SHIFT OVER TIME

jung s typology
JUNG’S TYPOLOGY

EXTROVERSIONINTROVERSION

Outgoing Shy

Sociability Territoriality

SENSATIONINTUITION

Practical Innovative

Details & facts “Big Picture”

Past Anticipation

THINKINGFEELING

Objective Personal

Logic, rational Emotional

JUDGINGPERCEIVING

Settled & Structured Open & Flexible

Work comes first Spontaneity / Play

the big five personality traits digman john
THE “BIG-FIVE” PERSONALITY TRAITSDIGMAN, JOHN
  • EXTROVERSION
    • Sociable, friendly, outgoing, talkative, assertive
  • AGREEABLENESS
    • Defers to others, harmony is valued, good-natured, cooperative, trusting
  • CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
    • Focused, responsible, dependable, persistent, achievement-oriented
  • EMOTIONAL STABILITY
    • Able to withstand stress, clam, enthusiastic, secure
  • OPENNESS TO NEW EXPERIENCES
    • Fascinated by novelty and innovation, imaginative, artistically sensitive

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS CONSISTENTLY PREDICTS JOB PERFORMANCE

locus of control rotter
LOCUS OF CONTROLROTTER

EXTENT THAT PEOPLE BELIEVE THEY ARE MASTERS OF THEIR OWN FATE

ARE YOU AN “ORIGIN” OR A “PAWN?”

INTERNALS - believe they control their destinies

EXTERNALS - outside forces control their lives

INTERNALS

SEARCH FOR MORE INFORMATION BEFORE MAKING A DECISION

MOTIVATED TO ACHIEVE, WANT INDEPENDENCE (TO BE IN CONTROL)

LESS LIKELY TO BE SICK OR ABSENT FROM WORK

PERFORM BETTER THAN EXTERNALS

EXTERNALS

MORE COMPLIANT, WILLING TO FOLLOW DIRECTIONS

ARE LESS SATISFIED WITH THEIR JOBS (THEY DON’T FEEL IN CONTROL)

MORE LIKELY TO BE ABSENT FROM WORK

machiavellianism christie geis
MACHIAVELLIANISMCHRISTIE & GEIS

DEGREE TO WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL IS PRAGMATIC, MAINTAINS EMOTIONAL DISTANCE, AND BELIEVES THAT THE END CAN JUSTIFY THE MEANS.

IF IT WORKS…USE IT!

AGGRESSIVENESS

ABILITY TO MANIPULATE OTHERS

EMOTIONALLY “COLD” OR IMPERSONAL

HIGH MACHS

Manipulate more, are persuaded less, persuade others more.

Like situations where there are big rewards for winning, and

there are no absolute standards of behavior.

Do well in jobs that require bargaining skills

self esteem brockner
SELF-ESTEEMBROCKNER

DO YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE YOURSELF?

SELF-ESTEEM IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO EXPECTATIONS FOR SUCCESS

HIGH SELF-ESTEEM

BELIEVE THEY POSSESS THE ABILITY THEY NEED TO SUCCEED AT WORK

TAKE MORE RISKS IN JOB SELECTION, MAY TRY UNCONVENTIONAL JOBS

WILLING TO TAKE UNPOPULAR STANDS ON ISSUES

ARE MORE SATISFIED WITH THEIR JOBS

LOW SELF-ESTEEM

MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO EXTERNAL INFLUENCES, PRONE TO CONFORM

DEPENDENT ON GETTING POSITIVE EVALUATIONS FROM OTHERS

TRY HARD TO PLEASE OTHERS

self monitoring snyder
SELF-MONITORINGSNYDER

THE ABILITY TO ADJUST YOUR BEHAVIOR TO EXTERNAL SITUATIONS

POLITICALLY VERY ASTUTE

HIGH SELF-MONITORS

VERY SENSITIVE TO EXTERNAL CUES, HIGHLY ADAPTABLE

CAN EASILY CONFORM TO THE WISHES OF OTHERS, BLENDS RIGHT IN

MAY APPEAR TO HAVE STRIKING CONTRADICTIONS BETWEEN THEIR PUBLIC PERSONA AND THEIR PRIVATE LIVES

CAN PUT ON DIFFERENT “FACES” FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE

ARE MORE MOBILE IN THEIR CAREERS, RECEIVE MORE PROMOTIONS

LOW SELF-MONITORS

CAN’T DISGUISE THEMSELVES, WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET

THEY’RE VERY CONSISTENT, RIGID

OFTEN THOUGHT OF AS POLITICALLY INEPT

risk taking taylor dunnette
RISK-TAKINGTAYLOR & DUNNETTE

WILLINGNESS TO TAKE CHANCES

HIGH RISK-TAKERS

MAKE RAPID DECISIONS

DON’T TAKE TIME TO GATHER MUCH INFORMATION

WILLING TO ACT ON “FEEL” OR “FAITH”

LOW RISK-TAKERS

TAKE MORE TIME TO GATHER INFORMATION FOR DECISIONS

CAUTION AND CONSERVATISM ARE HIGHLY VALUED

WILLINGNESS TO TAKE RISKS IS A JOB-SPECIFIC ISSUE…

OK FOR A STOCK BROKER, BUT NOT OK FOR AN ACCOUNTANT!

type a personality friedman rosenman
TYPE “A” PERSONALITYFRIEDMAN & ROSENMAN

SENSE OF TIME URGENCY

TYPE A’s

MOVE, WALK, EAT, AND MAKE DECISIONS RAPIDLY

FEEL IMPATIENT WITH THE RATE AT WHICH MOST EVENTS TAKE PLACE

STIVE TO THINK ABOUT OR DO TWO OR MORE THINGS AT ONCE

ARE PERCEIVED TO BE HARD-WORKING…. PUT IN LONG HOURS

ARE HIGHLY COMPETITIVE AND OBSESSED WITH “COUNTS” OF SUCCESS

CREATE DEADLINES FOR THEMSELVES….THEY ARE FAST WORKERS!!

OPERATE UNDER MODERATE TO HIGH LEVELS OF STRESS…CAN’T RELAX

TYPE B’s

NEVER SUFFER FROM A SENSE OF TIME URGENCY

FEEL NO NEED TO DISPLAY OR DISCUSS THEIR ACHIEVEMENTS

PLAY FOR FUN AND RELAXATION, RATHER THAN TO WIN

MORE LIKELY TO COME UP WITH CREATIVE SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

CAN RELAX WITHOUT GUILT

MORE LIKELY TO MAKE IT TO THE TOP

emotional intelligence
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

ABILITY TO DETECT AND MANAGE EMOTIONAL CUES AND INFORMATION

People who know their own emotions and are good at reading others’ emotions.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI)

SELF-AWARENESS Being aware of what you’re feeling

SELF-MANAGEMENT Ability to manage one’s own emotions and impulses

SELF-MOTIVATION Ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures

EMPATHY Ability to sense how others are feeling

SOCIAL SKILLS Ability to manage the emotions of others

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI) MAY BE A BETTER INDICATIOR OF PERFORMANCE THAN (IQ), ESPECIALLY IN JOBS THAT DEMAND A HIGH AMOUNT OF SOCIAL INTERACTION.

emotions
EMOTIONS

EMOTIONS = INTENSE FEELINGS DIRECTED AT SOMEONE OR SOMETHING

Object-specific…are you angry at your boss?

MOODS = LESS INTENSE FEELINGS THAT AREN’T DIRECTED AT SPECIFICS

Just feeling dispirited…(depressed)

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EMOTIONAL LABOR = You’re required to exhibit certain emotions on-the-job

Flight Attendants … need to be cheerful and smile

FELT v. DISPLAYED EMOTIONS -- Leads to possible emotional conflicts

EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE = Trying to be courteous to a very rude customer

TAKES ITS TOLL…LEADS TO BURNOUT AND EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION

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EMOTIONAL DIMENSIONS -- (a continuum of six universal emotions)

HAPPINESS---SURPRISE---FEAR----SADNESS---ANGER---DISGUST

ARE THEY INTENSE? ADJACENT DIMENSIONS MAY BE EASILY CONFUSED