Your Guide to the Magic and Mystery of APA Style. Nichole Egbert, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Communication Studies Kent State University. Why do you have to do this?. Because learning to write means mastering an accepted and uniform writing style.
- How your pages are set up
- How you cite sources
- Your references
- Even your language
Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Note: In the 5th edition of APA, there is NO underlining (everything that was underlined is now in italics).
Newcomb, H. (Ed.). (1995). Television: The critical view (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
*Note: Capitals in the title of the book are restricted to the first letter of the first word of the title, the first letter of any proper names, and the first letter of the first word after a semicolon, period, or question mark.
Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
*Note: when listing authors, use an ampersand (&) in the reference list, not “and.”
Bryant, J. (1989). Message features and entertainment effects. In J. J. Bradac (Ed.), Message effects in communication sceince (pp. 231-262). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
*Note: You must include the page numbers if you’re just referencing one part of a book.
Garramone, G. M. (1985). Effects of negative political advertising: The roles of sponsor and rebuttal. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 29, 149-159.
*Note: The first letter of every important word in the title of the journal is capitalized.
Suzuki, S., & Rancer, A. S. (1994). Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Testing for conceptual and measurement equivalence across cultures. Communication Monographs, 61, 256-279.
*Note: Can you find the volume number and page numbers in this citation?
Thomas, S., & Gitlin, T. (1993, May). Who says there’s a dominant ideology and what happens if that concept is falsified? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC.
Note: Conference papers are less highly regarded than published works
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
*Note: Sometimes electronic versions are different from the print versions.
Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
*Note: this would be the correct citation format for the article you abstracted for class
Learning how to do your reference page is only the beginning to APA style!!
Scott (1992) identified…
Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reported…
Or at the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992).
Scott et al. (1990) reported that
(EVERY TIME AFTER)
Scott and Williamson (1990) reported that…
(FIRST TIME and EVERY TIME)
6 or more authors, use “et al.,” first time and every time.Examples
Using headings makes it easier to navigate your paper. In a short paper like your lit review, you’d probably only use the first-level heading, but this is what they look like in order:
Third-level heading. Begin text of paragraph…
They go in this order…