Your Guide to APA Style. WHAT IS APA ?.
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- How your pages are set up
- How you cite sources
- Your references
- Your language
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition)
Anderson C.E., Carrell S.T., & Widdifield, J.L. (2007). Citingsources with APA documentation. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Lipson, C. (2006). Cite right. Chicago, IL: The University ofChicago Press.
Amato, C.J. (2008). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA (4th ed.). Corona, CA: Stargazer.
Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Baran, S. J., & Davis, D. K. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment and future. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
*Note: when listing authors, use an ampersand (&) in the reference list, not “and.”
Garramone, G. M. (1985). Effects of negative political advertising: The roles of sponsor and rebuttal. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 29, 149-159.
*Note: The first letter of each word in the title of the journal is capitalized.
Suzuki, S., & Rancer, A. S. (1994). Argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness: Testing for conceptual and measurement equivalence across cultures. Communication Monographs, 61, 256-279.
*Note: Can you find the volume number and page numbers in this citation?
Personal communications may be private letters, e-mails, interviews, telephone conversations, and the like. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only.
T.K Lutes provided us with his company’s business expenses in 2009 (personal communication, April 18, 2010)
* Include DOI, or Digital Object Identifier!
Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
*If DOI is not listed, the URL of where the document was found is used instead
Learning how to do your reference page is only the beginning
1) by paraphrasing, and
2) by quoting directly
According to Watkins (2005), the number of MBA students in the United States will be growing.
Scott (1992) identified…
Several researchers (Anthony, 1990; Gregory & Jacobs, 1985; Polk et al., 1980) reported…
Or at the end of a sentence paraphrased from another work (Scott, 1992).
acknowledged added admitted affirmed
agreed answered argued asked asserted attacked believed called claimed commented compared confirmed contended countered counterattacked
declared defined denied disputed echoed
emphasized endorsed estimated found,
AND MANY OTHERS….
1 – 5 Authors:
List the last names of all authors the first time you cite them.
For a second or more time, list last name of first author, followed by “et al.,” and the date.
6 OR MORE AUTHORS:
If there are 6 or more authors, write the first author’s last name followed by
‘et al.’ for the first and subsequent citations.
Scott et al. (1990) reported that
(EVERY TIME AFTER)
6 or more authors, use “et al.,” first time and every time.Examples
APA style requires a page number at the top right-hand corner of each page of your document. The first page of your manuscript is the title page, which is numbered page 1. The title page consists of three parts: the running head, the title, and the byline.
The running head is an abbreviated title specified by the author that would be used if the article was published. It should be typed flush left at the top of the title page in all capital letters, and should not exceed 50 characters.
Start the reference section on a new page.
The word “References” should be centered at the top of the page in boldface, but should not be underlined or capitalized.
List citations alphabetically by the author’s last name. If you have more than one citation for the same author, order them from oldest to most recent.
They go in this order…