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Update on Foliar Fungicides on Corn and Soybean. P. Vincelli, C. Lee, and D. Hershman University of Kentucky. Strobilurin fungicides labeled for corn and soybean. Headline ( pyraclostrobin ): Corn and soybean Quadris ( azoxystrobin ): Corn and soybean

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update on foliar fungicides on corn and soybean

Update on Foliar Fungicides on Corn and Soybean

P. Vincelli, C. Lee, and D. Hershman

University of Kentucky

strobilurin fungicides labeled for corn and soybean
Strobilurin fungicides labeled for corn and soybean
  • Headline (pyraclostrobin): Corn and soybean
  • Quadris (azoxystrobin): Corn and soybean
  • Quadris Xtra (+ cyproconazole): Soybean (section 18 for SBR).
  • Quilt (premix of azoxystrobin and propiconazole): Corn and soybean (section 18 for SBR)
  • Stratego (premix of trifloxystrobin and propiconazole): Corn and soybean
  • Several triazoles available but not thoroughly tested in either corn or soybean
for which corn diseases
For which corn diseases?

Northern leaf blight

Gray leaf spot

Image by K. Leonard and E. G. Suggs

Courtesy of the American Phytopathological Society

Both survive in infested corn residue.

for which diseases cont d
For which diseases (cont’d)?

Common rust: usually minor

to no effect on yield

Southern rust: damaging

but very sporadic

for which soybean diseases
For which soybean diseases?

Brown Spot

Pod and Stem Blight/Anthracnose

for which soybean diseases6
For which soybean diseases?

Cercospora Leaf Blight

Frogeye Leafspot

strobilurin fungicides provide excellent disease control in both corn and soybean

Strobilurin fungicides provide excellent disease control in both corn and soybean.

Yields are higher when disease levels are sufficient to reduce yield in untreated crops.

slide8
Yield differential in corn from a strobilurin fungicide application in 68 university research trials through 2006

Yield difference, trt minus untrt (bu/A)

Some trials conducted with susceptible hybrids or other conditions expected to

increase disease pressure. Data collated by Pioneer Hi-Bred.

slide9

40.5%

59.5%

Compiled by Arv Grybauskas and Liz Reed, UMD

2006 Soybean – 74 Headline Trials in Northern U.S.

20.0

Mean = + 2.8 bu/A

n = 74

15.0

P

> 0.05

P

≤ 0.05

10.0

Average Yield Response to Headline (bu/A)

5.0

0.0

IL, Tams

Delaware

MO, Alma

OH, Ross

WI, Bristol

ND, Fargo

OH, Wood

OH, Henry

SD, Groton

OH, Hardin

OH, Shelby

WI, Wood 2

WI, Wood 1

ON, Harrow

WI, Green 1

OH, Fayette

WI, Green 2

NE, SCAL 1

NE, ARDC 1

IN, Davis (L)

NY, Waterloo

IL, Brookport

IN, Davis (S)

MN, Waseca

MO, Dockery

KY, Princeton

WI, Columbia

IN, Pinney (L)

IN, Pinney (S)

WI, Stoughton

IN, SEPAC (L)

MO, Henrietta

IN, NEPAC (L)

SD, Brookings

IN, NEPAC (S)

MI, Saginaw B

MI, Saginaw S

IN, SEPAC (S)

WI, Arlington C

WI, Arlington N

ND, Colfax (L)

MO, Hundley 3

NE, Tekamah 1

SD, Watertown

MO, Hundley 2

MO, Richmond

ND, Colfax (S)

MO, Bradford 4

MO, Bradford 1

MN, Lamberton

MO, Bradford 3

MO, Henrietta II

MD, Beltsville C

MI, Saginaw C6

MI, Saginaw C2

MO, Greenley 4

KY, Madisonville

IA, Saratoga R2

MO, Greenley 3

MO, Greenley 1

MD, Beltsville N

IA, Saratoga R4

MO, Higginsville

MD, Keedysville

MO, Henrietta III

NY, Seneca Falls

MO, Richmond II

IN, Throckmorton (L)

MD, Queenstown (L)

IN, Throckmorton (S)

MD, Queenstown (IR)

MD, Queenstown (S) N

MO, Hundley-Whaley 1

MD, Queenstown (S) C

-5.0

-10.0

Location

is there a yield benefit from strobilurin fungicide on corn that goes beyond disease control

Is there a yield benefit from strobilurin fungicide on corn that goes beyond disease control?

Test this by evaluating yield in the absence of disease

hybrids selected for 2007 trials
Hybrids selected for 2007 trials

†All ratings were provided by the company.

1-2 = Excellent, 3-4 = Very Good, 5-6 = Good, 7-8 = Fair, 9 = Poor

is there a yield benefit from strobilurin fungicide on corn that goes beyond disease control15

Is there a yield benefit from strobilurin fungicide on corn that goes beyond disease control?

To date, most research at UK and beyond does not support this notion

variability of results is a concern
Variability of Results is a Concern
  • Farm “C”, Field 1, Soybean Test, Henderson KY
    • 2005
      • Response of 28 strips (24 varieties):
        • Mean = +10.2 bu/A
        • Range = 3.3 – 20.3 bu
      • Response of 5 “tester” strips (CPS 6444NRR):
        • Mean = 13.4 bu
        • Range = 9.7 – 18.9 bu
variability of results is a concern17
Variability of Results is a Concern
  • Farm “C”, Field 1, Soybean Test, Henderson KY
    • 2005
      • Response of 28 strips (24 varieties):
        • Mean = +10.2 bu/A
        • Range = 3.3 – 20.3 bu
      • Response of 5 “tester” strips (CPS 6444NRR):
        • Mean = 13.4 bu
        • Range = 9.7 – 18.9 bu
    • 2007
      • Response of 30 strips (26 varieties):
        • Mean = +3.6 bu/A
        • Range = -0.5 – 10.4 bu
      • Response of 5 “tester” strips (Vigoro V44N6RR):
        • Mean = 3.6 bu
        • Range = 1.3 – 8.7 bu
economic variability
Economic Variability
  • Assume: $22 for fungicide and application
    • Breakeven:
      • $9.50 soybeans = 2.3 bu/A
      • $8.50 soybeans = 2.6 bu
      • $7.50 soybeans = 2.9 bu
      • $6.50 soybeans = 3.4 bu
      • $5.50 soybeans = 4.0 bu
  • 2005 (Henderson County Example)
    • Mean, 10.3 bu; Range 3.3 bu – 20.3
  • 2007
    • Mean, 3.6 bu; Range 1.3 - 8.7 (40 % of strips below 2.5 bu response)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Fungicides (primarily strobilurins) do increase yield when diseases are yield-limiting.
  • Expect less than stellar results when disease is not limiting yield.
  • Apply fungicides to corn or soybean when the probability of a response is greatest.
  • Avoid applying fungicides when the potential for a response is low.
slide20
2nd year corn or soybean

No-till

Susceptible hybrid (corn)

Late planting (corn), early planting, early maturity (soybean)

High yield potential

Disease activity at tasseling (corn), beginning pod (soybean)

Disease-favorable weather or crop irrigated

Climbing the “Probability Ladder”: Factors that increase the probability of yield response from fungicides on corn and soybean

Higher

probability

Lower

probability

public concern is a concern
Public concern is a concern
  • Acres of corn and soybean sprayed in Kentucky
    • 2000
      • Corn: <1%
      • Soybean: <1%
    • 2007
      • Corn: 20%
      • Soybean : 25%
  • Most of KY’s and U.S. population is no longer rural and the public generally fears use of pesticides by farmers.
  • “Plant Health” application of fungicides has gotten EPA’s attention.