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Revolution in Latin America. Conflict, Chaos and Cocaine in Colombia. Major Revolutionary Movements. “Revolution” goal: Transformation of oppressive societal structures Most movements in Latin America aspire to transformation but fail to achieve this goal. Three periods:

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revolution in latin america

Revolution in Latin America

Conflict, Chaos and Cocaine in Colombia

major revolutionary movements
Major Revolutionary Movements
  • “Revolution” goal:
    • Transformation of oppressive societal structures
  • Most movements in Latin America aspire to transformation but fail to achieve this goal.
  • Three periods:
    • Independence – elite “revolution”
    • Influence of Fidel (1959-90 to Sandinista defeat)
    • Individuals – new social movements (indigenous)
south american movements
South American Movements
  • Argentina
    • Monteros/Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP)
  • Bolivia
    • Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (1952-1964)
    • Túpac Amaru (1780 sporadic – throughout Andes)
  • Colombia (1964-Present)
    • Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarios de Colombia
    • Ejército de Liberación Nacional
    • Quintín Lame
    • Auto-defensas Unidas de Colombia
    • M-19
    • Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores
  • Peru
    • Sendero Luminoso (1980)
    • Hugo Blanco
  • Uruguay
    • Tupamaros
caribbean and central american movements
Caribbean and Central American Movements
  • Cuba
    • 26th of July Movement 1959-Present
  • El Salvador
    • Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), 1980-1992.
  • Mexico
    • Mexican Revolution 1910
    • Chiapas, Zapatistas – Ejercito Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, 1 January 1994
  • Nicaragua
    • Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), 1979-1990
colombia
Colombia
  • La Violencia 1948-1958.
  • Power sharing agreement to end conflict.
  • Emergence of multiple “revolutionary” groups
    • FARC (Revolutionary Army of Colombia 1964)
    • ELN (National Liberation Army 1964)
    • AUC (United Self Defense Forces of Colombia)
    • EPL (Popular Liberation Army 1965)
    • M-19 (April 19th Movement)
colombian politics
Colombian Politics
  • Two party system
    • Liberals and Conservatives
    • Organized to prevent legal dissent.
    • 1956 National Front
  • Belisario Betancur
    • 1983 peace talks.
    • FARC forms Patriotic Union (political branch)
    • Congressional defection – 1986 government crackdown
  • Mid-1990s
    • Two front war: Cocaine cartel and FARC.
    • Defeat of cartel = financial opportunity for FARC.
    • Government use of paramilitary de-legitimizing.
  • Alvaro Uribe
    • Hardline new president of Colombia
    • Bush administration 2007-2008 budget proposes increased funding while all other Latin American countries will be cut.
slide7
FARC
  • Roots in repressed coffee labor movement.
  • Coffee laborers supported by Colombian Communist Party.
  • Assassination of Jorge Gaitán, Cuban revolution inspiration moves movement beyond self-defense to “revolution”.
  • Retains nominal support of Marxist goals today.
  • Governed by a general secretariat led by longtime leader Manuel Marulanda (a.k.a. “Tirofijo”/Sureshot).
  • Organized along military lines and includes several units that operate mostly in key urban areas such as Bogotá (present in 60% of municipal areas 2005).
  • Funded with coca “taxes” – demise of Escobar 1993
slide8
ELN
  • National Liberation Army
  • 1965: Marxist insurgent group, formed by urban intellectuals inspired by Castro and Guevara.
  • Primary opposition to FARC
  • Leader Felipe Torres.
slide9
AUC
  • United Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC) formed in 1997 to protect economic interests and combat FARC and ELN insurgents.
  • Supported by economic elites, drug traffickers, and local communities lacking effective government security and claims its primary objective is to protect its sponsors from insurgents.
  • Frequently aided by Colombian military (clandestine)
  • Leader Carlos Castano, negotiating to demobilize.