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PIAGET

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  1. PIAGET and the theory of CONSERVATION

  2. Piaget’s Stage Theory* Sensori-motor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage (Birth to two years) the first signs of intelligence appear in infants’ sensory perceptions and physical actions, as the baby deals with the immediate world (2 to 7 years) children develop the ability to use representations and symbols in thought, but thinking is still illogical compared to adult thought (7 to 11 years) children are able to “think systematically, but only when they can refer to concrete objects and activities” (11 years to adulthood) children become able to think “systematically on a purely abstract and hypothetical plane” * Definitions and quotations come from Crain 113 and Pulaski 19. OBJECT PERMANENCE CONSERVATION

  3. What is CONSERVATION? “the awareness that a quantity remains the same despite a change in its appearance”* = (*Evans, xxxi)

  4. Why is mastery of conservation the TRANSITION between the preoperational and operational stages? = OPERATIONAL STAGE: Identity Compensation Inversion Nothing has been added or subtracted The differences cancel each other out The act can be undone • PREOPERATIONAL STAGE: • Focuses on one dimension One has more because it’s taller, or the other has more because it’s wider

  5. Where do kids get confused? What’s the Missing Piece?

  6. ? ? ? QUESTIONS ? ? ? ? ? WHY CAN’T CHILDREN IN PIAGET’S PREOPERATIONAL STAGE CONSERVE? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? CAN CHILDREN IN THIS STAGE BE TAUGHT TO CONSERVE? ? ?

  7. St. Therese’s Afternoon Kindergarten Class

  8. Setting: * A table and two chairs in a small empty office * 2:00 to 3:00 PM every afternoon for about two and a half weeks Limitations: Assumptions: * Time restraints * Only 8 children * Varying ages • * Communication skills • * Honesty • * Cooperation

  9. DATA FORM, Pre-assessment stage Child’s Name: ___________________ Child’s Age: _______________ 1. Sit next to the child. Make sure child’s name is recorded on the data form. 2. Place two identical clear plastic cups on the table or desk in the workspace. 3. Ask, “Do you see these two cups?” YES NO “Are they the same size?” YES NO 4. Show the child two identical small bottles of water. Ask “Do you see these two bottles of water?” YES NO “Are they the same size?” YES NO “Do they have the same amount of water in them?” YES NO 5. Pour the water from one bottle of water into the blue cup. Ask, “Do you see me pouring the water from this bottle into the blue cup?” YES NO Show the child the empty water bottle. Ask, “Did I pour all the water from the bottle into the cup?” YES NO 6. Pour the water from the other bottle of water into the pink cup. Again ask, “Do you see me pouring the water from this bottle into the pink cup?” YES NO Show the child the empty water bottle. Ask, “Did I pour all the water from the bottle into the cup?” YES NO 7. Ask the child, “Does the blue cup have more water than the pink one or does the blue cup have less water than the pink one, or does the blue cup have the same amount of water as the pink one? _______________________________ 8. Show the child the different cup. Ask, “Do you see this white cup?” YES NO Ask “Is this white cup bigger or smaller than these other cups or is this white cup the same size as the other cups?” __________________________________ 9. Take the pink cup of water and pour the water into the white cup. Ask, “Do you see me pouring the water from the pink cup into the white cup?” YES NO Show the child the empty cup. Ask, “Did I pour all of the water from the pink cup into the white cup?” YES NO 10. Show the child the two cups containing water. Ask, “Does this white cup contain more water than the blue cup, or does the white cup contain less water than the blue cup, or does the white cup contain the same amount of water as the blue cup?”_______________________________ Ask “How do you know that?” _____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 11. Thank the child. PART 1: THE PRE-ASSESSMENT STAGE * To make sure none of the children can conserve 100% 0% BLUE PINK WHITE One of the children initially said that the amounts were equal, but when asked why, he changed his mind and said that the white cup had more water.

  10. PART 2: ASSESSING CHILD’S UNDERSTANDING OF “MORE”, “LESS” and “SAME” * To make sure that the children do not fail to conserve because they do not understand the terms used in the questions Do you have more blocks or do I have more blocks or do we have the same amount of blocks?

  11. PART 2, CONTINUED 6 4 5 Which pile of blue blocks has the same amount of blocks as you have? Which pile of blue blocks has more blocks than you have? Which pile of blue blocks has less blocks than you have?

  12. PART 2, CONTINUED Can you make a pile of blue blocks? Can you make a pile of green blocks that has less blocks than the pile of blue blocks? Can you make a pile of green blocks that has the same amount of blocks as the pile of blue blocks? Can you make a pile of green blocks that has more blocks than the pile of blue blocks?

  13. Understanding Terms “More”, “Less” and “Same” Conclusion: The children understood the terms “more,” “less,” and “same” when used to compare two quantities.

  14. Methods for comparing blocks “How do you know it’s less?” “Because seven to thirteen.” “I’ll make a straight line of them with the green blocks and blue blocks.” 3 Stacked 4 Counted “I’m going to see by piling them up the same way the green are piled up.” 1 Lined up “You mean the same height?” “I mean the same amount.”

  15. PART 3: BASIC CONSERVATION • To assess the child’s ability to do the basic conservation task with solid objects that will not change shape when moved from container to container • To determine at what particular step in the conservation task the child gets confused • To determine whether conservation can be taught if it is broken up into a series of small steps

  16. PART 3, CONT. How many blue blocks are there? How many green blocks are there? Are there more blue blocks or more green blocks or are there the same amount of green blocks and blue blocks? Are there more blocks in the blue cup or more blocks in the pink cup or are there the same amount of blocks in the blue cup and in the pink cup? Are there more blocks in the blue cup or more blocks in the pink cup or in the white cup or are there the same amount of blocks in the blue cup and in the white cup?

  17. PART 3, CONT. Procedure was repeated with. . . 12 red and 12 yellow candies Three blue blocks and three green blocks Six red candies and six yellow candies 2 piles of 20 beans each

  18. Results for Beans and Rice

  19. Repeat the Basic Conservation Task with Water Will children be able to conserve water now that they have conserved the other things? Hypothesis: Children who were able to conserve the beans and rice will be able to conserve water. = =

  20. SURPRISE

  21. PART 3, CONT. Are there the same amount of beans in both of these cups? Are there more beans in the pink cup or more beans in the blue cup or are there the same amount of beans in the blue cup and the pink cup? =

  22. BEANS/RICE vs. WATER B/c the white cup is smaller and there’s more water in it It’s skinnier and it’s almost full

  23. PART 4: Final Stage 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 BLUE PINK * To assess at what step during the conservation of water the children fail to conserve Are these two bottles the same size? Do they have the same amount of water in them? So, are all three of these bottles the same size? Do they all have the same amount of water in them? 100% blue cup = bottle 100% pink cup = bottle 100% pink cup = blue cup 100% pink cup = bottle = blue cup

  24. PART 4, CONT. 2 1 1 3 3 BLUE PINK 50% blue cup = bottle pink cup = bottle blue cup = pink cup blue cup = bottle = pink cup 50% pink cup = bottle blue cup = bottle pink cup = blue cup blue cup = bottle = pink cup 50% less water in blue cup pink cup = bottle less in blue cup 50% less water in blue cup less in pink cup blue cup = pink cup

  25. PART 4, CONT. BLUE PINK Is there still the same amount of water in the blue cup and in the pink cup? = BLUE PINK WHITE * Did I pour all of the water from the pink cup into the white cup? * Did I add any water to the white cup that wasn’t in the pink cup? * Did I take any water away from the white cup?

  26. This one has 6; this one has 6. I knew that every time you pour you have the same amount when you begin and when you end. */ ** See notes at end of presentation

  27. 1 2 5 3 4 3 5

  28. Water with divider vs. Water without divider

  29. FIRST AND FINAL ANSWERS COMPARED First said “same—because I know stuff about water” then changed his mind and said “Oh, the white cup is higher than the blue cup so there’s more water in white.

  30. CONCLUSION: WHAT A SMART GUY!

  31. Special ThanksTo: St. Therese Academy Especially Mrs. Thomas, Head of School Mrs. Limon, Kindergarten Teacher The Afternoon Kindergarten Class: Christopher Capezzuto Joseph Chanoine G. P. Cole T.J. Gulledge Ali Killian Thomas Levonius Cintya Orozco Cecilia Weigel Karen Thomas and Julia Arrambidez For their chauffeur services

  32. Notes on data in chart on Slide 20: * She had trouble with 12 candies—she said the pink cup had more than the blue cup so we backtracked and asked, “How many candies are in the pink cup? How many candies are in the blue cup? Are there more candies in the pink cup or in the blue cup?” After re-asking the question, she answered that the amounts were the same. Also, she did only 12 instead of 20 beans because she had trouble counting only 12 candies. ** s/he thought each pile had 21 beans