JEAN PIAGET. 1896-1913: Early Years 1914-1918: Formal Education 1918-1921: From scientist to psychologist. 1896 - 1980. PIAGET. A Brief Biography *. Born in Switzerland in 1896 Research on sparrow and mollusks Earned a doctorate in the natural sciences
1896 - 1980
A Brief Biography*
* Information from http://www.piaget.org/ and Crain, William. “Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory.”
Piaget believed that
human beings inherited
the tendency to organize
Stage two: primary circular reactions (1 – 4 months)
Stage three: secondary circular reactions (4-8 months)
Stage four: Coordination of secondary schemata (8-12 months)
Stage Five: Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months)
Stage six: Mental combinations (18 months – 2 years)Sensorimotor
Object Permanence develops in this phase.
The first development takes place in stage 3, at 4-10 months.
In stage 4 (10 - 12 months) object permanence becomes more prominent in children’s play.
Infants have a completely developed sense of object permanence before entering Preoperational thought.
Until stage 3, infants have no sense of objects outside of themselves.
As they mature, their egocentrism fades, and they begin to recognize that the world exists outside of their own perception of it.
A happy 8 month old baby, playing with her ball...
until, the ball rolls out of her sight...
and to her it is completely gone!
This stage is characterized by seven types of conservation:
number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, and volume.
Piaget's research methods were based primarily on case studies [they were descriptive].
While some of his ideas have been supported through more correlational and experimental methodologies, others have not.
For example, Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next.
Data from cross-sectional studies of children in a variety of western cultures seem to support this assertion for the stages of sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operations.
However, data from similar cross-sectional studies of adolescents do not support the assertion that all individuals will automatically move to the next cognitive stage as they biologically mature.
For formal operations, it appears that maturation establishes the basis, but a distinct environment is required for most adolescents and adults to attain this stage.
Although research does not support all of Piaget’s descriptive theory, it is still influential for parent’s and educators.