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Phylum Arthropoda (The Arthropods). By far and away, the most successful animal group ever to live Consists of over 1 million named species, 2 of every 3 animals are arthropods. ~ 10 18 individuals. Inhabit all ecosystems General characteristics All have a hard exoskeleton

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phylum arthropoda the arthropods

Phylum Arthropoda(The Arthropods)

By far and away, the most successful animal group ever to live

Consists of over 1 million named species, 2 of every 3 animals are arthropods. ~ 1018 individuals.

Inhabit all ecosystems

General characteristics

All have a hard exoskeleton

Composed of protein and chitin

Allows for great variation in function - biological "swiss army knives"

Must molt as they grow

Limits their size

Have well developed body segments and appendages

Have well developed sensory organs including true eyes and antennae

Have open circulatory systems & special gas exchange organs

subphylum chilicerata arachnids horseshoe crabs sea spiders
Subphylum Chilicerata(arachnids, horseshoe crabs & sea spiders)
  • Divided into 3 classes; Arachnida, Merostomata & Pycnogonida
  • Body divided into 2 regions
    • Abdomen
    • Cephalothorax (fused head & thorax)
  • Lack jaws
  • Have 6 appendages & no antennae
    • First appendages form chilicerae (frequently fangs)
class arachnida spiders scorpions ticks mites
Class Arachnida(Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks & Mites)
  • Very diverse class
  • Most species parasitic or predatory
  • Many possess book lungs for gas exchange
  • Spiders are able to produce a strong polymer - silk
  • Chilicera in form of fangs
more spiders
More Spiders…


Black Widow

for the true arachnophobe
For the true arachnophobe…

The brown recluse and its bite wounds

common mites
Common Mites

Dust Mite

Common Mite

class merostomata
Class Merostomata
  • Ancient group of species
  • Changed little over 350 million years
  • Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States
subphylum uniramai 3 classes
Subphylum Uniramai(3 Classes)
  • Class Insecta(insects)
  • Class Chilopoda (Centipedes)
  • Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
class insecta the insects
Class Insecta (the insects)
  • Far & away the most diverse of animal groups
    • More types of insects alone than all other animal groups combined
    • Inhabit all terrestrial & freshwater ecosystems.
    • Success largely attributed to coevolution with flowering plants.
insect body plan
Insect Body Plan
  • Insects have 6 legs
  • 3 body parts
    • Head
    • Thorax
    • Abdomen
  • Most insects have wings, however in many species these are vestigal
  • Have advanced excretory system composed of malphygian tubules
  • Exchange gasses through a complex tracheal system
  • Have complex compound eye which is usually extremely sensitive to motion and allows 3600 vision
  • Most insects see well into the UV spectrum
feeding mouthparts
Feeding / Mouthparts
  • Insects usually have specialized jaws/mouthparts suited to their ecological niche
  • Most insects undergo a process of metamorphosis - 2 types
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
    • Larva similar to adult, with differing body proportions
    • Undergoes a series of molts resulting in adult phenotype
complete metamorphosis
Complete Metamorphosis
  • Larva is very unlike adult phenotype
  • Envelopes self in a coccoon or chrysalis where body breaks-down and reforms into adult form.
classes chiopoda diplopoda
Classes Chiopoda & Diplopoda
  • Millipedes (diplopoda) are segmented worm-like animals
    • Have 2 pairs of legs per segment
    • Primarily herbivores & decomposers
  • Centipedes (Chilopoda)
    • Usually terrestrial carnivores
    • Have 1 pair of antennae
    • Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey
centipedes vs millipedes
Centipedes vs. Millipedes



subphylum crustacea
Subphylum Crustacea
  • Includes crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill & barnacles
  • Over 40,000 species
  • Appendages are often highly specialized
  • Gas exchange is usually through gills
  • Many species taste delicious in butter
some crustaceans
Some Crustaceans


Marine Maine Lobster