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Phylum Arthropoda. Read Chap 31 pgs. 681-703 Dichotomous Key. What is Entomology?. The study of insects (and their near relatives). Species Diversity. PLANTS. INSECTS. OTHER ANIMALS. OTHER ARTHROPODS. Arthropods. Jointed-legged invertebrates. CLASSIFICATION

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Phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda

  • Read Chap 31 pgs. 681-703

  • Dichotomous Key

What is entomology
Whatis Entomology?

The study of insects

(and their near relatives).

Species diversity

Species Diversity









Jointed-legged invertebrates



  • SUB- Trilobita Crustacea Chelicerata Uniramia


  • CLASS extinct Crustacea Arachnida Chilopoda

  • Diplopoda

  • Insecta

  • ORDER 16

Characteristics of phylum arthropoda
Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda

  • - Segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata (in insects = head, thorax, abdomen).

  • - Paired appendages (e.g., legs, antennae, wings) are jointed.

  • - Possess chitinous exoskeleton that must be shed during growth.

  • Open circulatory system

  • Nervous system is ventral (belly) and the circulatory system is open and dorsal (back).

  • Complete digestive system

Head Thorax Abdomen


  • Major reason for success!

  • Provides

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Prevention of dehydration

    • Sites for muscle attachment


  • Change body form from immature (larval) stages to adult forms

  • Reduces competition between stages for

    • Food

    • Living space

Taxonomy of arthropods
Taxonomy of Arthropods

  • 4 subphyla

    • Trilobitomorpha (all extinct)

    • Chelicerata

    • Crustacea

    • Uniramia

The state fossil of Ohio

Subphylum chelicerata plier like
Subphylum Chelicerata (plier like)

  • Horseshoe crabs

  • Spiders

  • Mites

  • Ticks

  • Scorpions

Scorpion head
Scorpion Head




Orders of arachnids
Orders of Arachnids



(a mite)





Pseudo scorpion pseudo means false
Pseudo scorpion(pseudo means “false”)

Mite and tick body regions
Mite and Tick Body Regions

pedipalps &




Common ticks
Common ticks

American dog tick male


Rocky mountain spotted fever

Blacklegged (deer) tick female

- Vectors Lyme disease


Clover mites

Twospotted spider mites

Velvet mite

Predatory mite

Phalanges daddy long legs
Phalanges (daddy-long-legs)



Spider anatomy
Spider Anatomy


chelicera (fang)


narrow waist




Chelicera (fang)



Wolf spider with egg case

Spitting spider

Orbweaving spider


Dangerous spiders
Dangerous Spiders

Black widow with egg case

Brown recluse


Interesting modifications
Interesting modifications

  • Spinnerets

  • Malpighian tubules

Subphylum crustacea
Subphylum Crustacea

  • Shrimp, lobsters, crayfish

  • Fairy shrimp, brine shrimp

  • Water fleas

  • Barnacles


Crayfish cephalothorax


Sow bug (Isopoda),

a terrestrial crustacean

Class crustacea tremendous variety
CLASS CRUSTACEA tremendous variety

  • daphnia, crabs, lobster, pill bugs, crayfish

  • *primarily aquatic, mostly marine 25,000 species

  • (motile sessile microscopic, 2 ft. or more)

  • *gills, at least 5 pairs of legs

  • *carapace- shield to protect vital organs

  • * branched antennae

  • see lab for specifics of this group

Subphylum uniramia
Subphylum Uniramia

  • Class Diplopoda (millipedes)

  • Class Chilopoda (centipedes)

  • Class Hexapoda (insects)

[one pair of antennae, head & trunk regions, trunk with many pairs of legs]

Diplopod (Millipede)

Two pair of legs per visible segment, attached under body.

Chilopod (Centipede)

Pair of fangs under head, one pair legs per visible segment - attached to side of body.

Symphyla (Symphyla)[garden centipede]

No fangs, no eyes, legs attached to side of body.

Millipede (Diplopoda) pairs of legs]

Centipede (Chilopoda)

Garden centipede (Symphyla)

Nervous system
Nervous System pairs of legs]

  • Johnston’s organs (hearing - on antennae)

  • Tympanic organs (hearing – on legs or body)

  • Compound eyes (facets – ommatidia – fused)

  • Simple eyes (ocelli)

Economic impact of arthropods
Economic Impact of Arthropods pairs of legs]

1. Name two effects of each major group has on mankind (good and bad).

Crustacea, Millipede, Centipede, Arachnida

2. For insects, list 4 good things that they do and 4 bad things that they are responsible for.

Insects pairs of legs]

Head Thorax Abdomen

How many kinds insects are there in the world

How Many Kinds Insects are there in the world? pairs of legs]

Possibly 3,000,000 unidentified species

  • 1,000,000 species known

Classification of japanese beetle
Classification of Japanese Beetle pairs of legs]

  • Kingdom Animalia

  • Phylum Arthropoda

  • Class Insecta

  • Order Coleoptera

  • Family Scarabaeidae

  • Genus Popillia

  • Species japonica

*molting "ecdysiast"- pairs of legs]

  • hormone induced changes to create new and larger exoskeleton

  • desiccation potential

  • "instars" periods between molts

  • vulnerable while exchanging skeleton

  • may continue throughout life or end at a particular point

DIGESTION pairs of legs]

  • foregut

  • ingestion, mechanical breakdown and storage

  • midgut

  • chemical digestion, absorption, enzymatic,

  • (sounds like our intestines)

  • hindgut

  • absorption of water and formation of feces

Respiration handout in binder
RESPIRATION pairs of legs](handout in binder )

Open Circulatory System- blood not confined to the vessels

  • Pericardial sinus- space for gas exchange around the heart (open space)

  • Gases into the body through the spiracles in the exoskeleton (waxy)

  • Trachae- tubes from spiracles to vital locations

  • ***blood is not vital for gas exchange*** rare to find hemoglobin

  • Tracheoles- branches with membranes at the end fluid tipped perhaps

Other possible modifications
other possible modifications pairs of legs]

  • *book lungs- look like corrugated cardboard

  • *coordination between opening and closing of spiracles to pump the air in (think of a tire pump)

  • *air sacs at the end of the tracheoles for increased surface area

  • *gills

Communication pairs of legs]


Pheromones- airborne chemicals are used by males can find females for mating purposes

  • 1) releasers- immediate behavior change

  • 2) primers- profound physiological changes

Bug’s Life

  • humans have exploited this with bug traps (June bugs) pairs of legs]

  • Scent trails can be left on the ground during food foraging trips (A BUG’S Life video)

  • plants mimic scents to attract pollinators

  • death pheromones- remove ant from a colony and paint with the chemical, return to colony and is repeatedly carried away.

  • 0.00000001 grams silkworm female can be detected 2 miles

Communication pairs of legs]

  • *visual-

  • can see ultraviolet wavelengths of light

  • Fireflies use light to attract mates Males are in the air while females remain on the ground

Communication pairs of legs]

  • *Sound

  • production in grasshoppers, crickets and cicadas

  • scraping of limbs on the exoskeleton, air vibrations along the exoskeleton caused by muscle movement

Mimicry pairs of legs]

  • visual, camouflage (hide or lie in ambush)


  • (faked you out!)

  • Now you’re dinner!

Social behavior requires communication
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR pairs of legs] requires communication

  • A colony can have the same effect as a large single animal

  • Hey, hey, hey do what I tell you

  • Division of Labor pairs of legs]

  • ex. bee hive

  • 80,000 members

  • polymorphic anatomy

  • Drone Worker Queen

What a life
What a life? pairs of legs]

  • worker 6 wk. life, sterile female, reproductive organs become stinger, 1,000 s

  • drone- (n) reproductive male, only for mating, 100s, die after mating, killed if food is low

  • queen bee- reproductive female, 5-6 year life

Worker behavior
worker behavior pairs of legs]

  • week 1

  • feed queen, drones, larva, secrete "royal jelly"

  • weeks 2-4

  • secrete wax, clean, repair hive, guard,

  • fan in fresh air

  • weeks 5-6

  • gather pollen and nectar

Stand for the queen
Stand for the QUEEN! pairs of legs]

  • QUEEN is like other female but she eats "ROYAL JELLY"

  • Secretes "queen factor" which prevents other females from becoming reproductive. Mates once and stores sperm

Butt wiggle dance

Butt wiggle dance pairs of legs]

Metamorphosis pairs of legs]

  • Incomplete-

  • grasshopper and termite

  • Egg- nymph- adult

  • Immature adult look alike, small ,non-sexual

Metamorphosis pairs of legs]

  • Complete

  • butterfly, moth (most insects)

  • Egg-larva-pupa- adult



  • Controlling factors pairs of legs]

  • Sequential expression of genes

  • Brain hormone stimulates molting hormone in thorax gland

Molting hormone released in both where juvenile hormone is present
Molting hormone pairs of legs] released in both where juvenile hormone is present

  • JH MH larva molts

  • JH MH larva pupates

  • JH MH pupa to adult

  • Importance of metamorphosis?

  • No competition for food

  • What the caterpillar eats the adult does not

  • Name ________________________ Period ________ pairs of legs]


  • Materials

  • 1 lab set “Dissecting a Crustacean- the Crayfish”

  • Dissecting microscope

  • Dissecting tools

  • STEP 1 Examine the external anatomy of a crayfish

  • Follow Procedure A of the LAB NOT STEP 5 ON LIVE CRAYFISH

  • Compare the live specimens w/ diagrams on sheets

  • Describe texture of the crayfish

  • STEP 2 Test Crayfish Behavior

  • Lay live crayfish in a clear plastic container

  • Observe/record behavior for 4-5 minutes

  • Observe/record movements (O/R)

  • O/R responses to stimuli on a table with 2 columns (see below)

    • Bubbles gently blown into the water

    • Touch with a probe (Anterior/ Posterior)

    • Touch chelipeds, walking legs, middle of dorsal, telson

    • Darken ½ of the container

    • Shine a light on the anterior

  • 5. Drop one piece of food (shrimp pellet) near the anterior O/R feeding behavior

  • STEP 3 Crayfish Dissection

  • Follow instructions in the lab papers.

  • STEP 4 Reading Assignments

  • 715-719, 720-734


  • Stimulus Response

  • Probe telson

  • walking leg

Rules for writing a dichotomous key
Rules for writing a dichotomous key pairs of legs]

  • 1. always couplets

  • 2. total number of couplets is one less than the total number of items

  • 3. no overlapping measurements

  • 4. only physical descriptions (no behaviors)

  • 5. start couplets with the same word

Test topics
Test Topics pairs of legs]

  • Dichotomous Key, Video “Swarming Hordes”, Arthropod Notes,

  • Lab Crayfish dissection and Behavior, Insect Social Behavior,

  • SEQUENTIAL COMPARISON INDEX, relationship between annelids and arthropods, Read (general 715-719, crustacea729-734) Chap 31 in regular BIOLOGY text