BTEC National Travel and Tourism Unit 1 Investigating Travel and Tourism
Unit 1 Learning Outcomes • Know the components of travel and tourism, and how they interrelate • Know the roles and responsibilities of travel and tourism organisations within the different sectors • Understand how recent developments have shaped the present day travel and tourism industry • Understand the trends and factors affecting the development of travel and tourism
Icebreaker • Make a list of all the travel and tourism organisations that you can think of • Try and group them into similar categories, e.g. transport, attractions, accommodation, etc. • Think of ways in which some of the organisations work together • Have a go at coming up with your own definition of ‘travel and tourism’ • Make a list of the reasons why people travel in this country and abroad • Write down who you think owns the travel and tourism organisations on your original list • Make a list of the jobs available in two of the organisations you have listed
What is ‘travel and tourism’? '...the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes‘ (World Tourism Organisation) ‘Tourism is the temporary, short‑term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions’ (Tourism Society)
What is ‘travel and tourism’? Both definitions clearly show that people we think of as tourists are: • Away from their normal place of residence (although they will be returning home) • On a visit that is temporary and short‑term • Engaged in activities which would normally be associated with travel and tourism • Not necessarily staying away from home overnight; they may be on a day‑trip or excursion • Not always away from home for holiday purposes; they could be on business or visiting friends and relatives (VFR), but would still qualify as tourists
Types of tourism There are three main types of tourism: • Domestic tourism: when people take holidays, short breaks and day trips in their own country, e.g. a family from Birmingham enjoying a two‑week holiday in a farm guesthouse in North Wales • Inbound/incoming tourism: when people enter a country from their own country of origin or another country which is not their home, e.g. Monsieur and Madame du Pont from Paris sampling the delights of Edinburgh as part of a driving tour of Scotland • Outbound tourism: when people travel away from the country where they normally live, e.g. the family from Birmingham deciding to give North Wales a miss this year and taking a week's holiday at Disneyland Paris instead
Textbook activity 1.1 Carry out a survey of the rest of your group to find out how many people took their last holiday abroad (outbound tourism) and what proportion stayed in the UK (domestic tourism). Draw a bar chart showing the results you collected. Ask the members of your group to tell you which components of the travel and tourism industry they used on their last holiday. This activity is designed to provide evidence for P1
Textbook activity 1.2 Business tourism is often considered to be ‘high value’ tourism. Why do you think this is? Can you think of ways that travelling for business reasons has changed in recent years and what factors are likely to affect business travel in the future?
CD-ROM activity CD1.1 Investigates the different types of leisure tourism
CD-ROM activity CD1.2 Investigates the different types of business tourism
Components of travel and tourism • Accommodation • Transport • Attractions • Tour operations • Travel agents • Tourism development and promotion • Trade associations and regulatory bodies • Ancillary services All of these components are provided by a large number of different businesses and public agencies working in tourism, which together make up the travel and tourism industry as shown in the following slide.
Textbook activity 1.3 Working in a small team, carry out some research into which components of the travel and tourism industry are found in your local area. Use the diagram in Figure 1.4 (slide 13) as your starting point. Make a note of the names of the companies or organisations represented, their purpose and how they interrelate with other components of the travel and tourism industry, giving examples that include domestic, inbound and outbound tourism. This activity is designed to provide evidence for P1, P2 and M1
Types of accommodation • Serviced – when a service is provided along with an overnight stay, e.g. hotels, guesthouses, youth hostels, B & Bs, etc. • Self-catering – when tourists cater for themselves, e.g. cottages, camping, holiday centres and villages, caravanning, second homes, etc.
Accommodation grading schemes Accommodation grading schemes are a way that tourist boards can classify accommodation according to the quality of facilities and standards of service on offer in a particular establishment. Customers use these schemes when selecting where to stay, with the expectation that their accommodation will be a fair reflection of the grade that it has been given. In the UK, the national tourist boards have used different schemes in the past based on crowns, stars, keys and a variety of other symbols. There are also schemes on offer from the motoring organisations.
Textbook activity 1.4 Carry out some research into the accommodation grading scheme used by your national tourist board and design an illustrated brochure for visitors that explains the different categories on offer.
Types of transport • Road – private car, coach, taxi, bus, bicycle • Rail – regional services, inter-city routes, high-speed services, steam trains • Sea – ferries, cruise ships, barges, yachts • Air – scheduled services, charter flights, ‘no frills’ carriers, air taxis
Road travel • Most popular type of transport used by tourists in Britain • Dramatic growth in car ownership since the 1950s • Congestion and pollution are problems in urban and rural areas • Historic cities and National Parks have introduced traffic control measures, e.g. park-and-ride schemes, cycle hire, etc.
Rail travel • Under-investment over many decades in Britain’s rail network • Government is now investing over £60 billion to develop a bigger, better and safer railway system • Network Rail maintains the infrastructure – track, signalling, bridges, tunnels, etc. • Train Operating Companies (TOCs) run the trains, ticketing, rail enquiries, etc. • Examples of TOCs include Virgin Trains, GNER, Arriva Trains, First Great Western, etc.
Textbook activity 1.5 Produce a PowerPoint® presentation on one of the UK’s train operating companies (TOCs), giving details of its history, services, performance standards, fare structures and customer service arrangements. Describe how the company works with other components of the travel and tourism industry, formally and informally. This activity is designed to provide evidence for P1 and P2
Sea travel • Sea travel in UK tourism is dominated by the ferry companies, which operate services between the UK and Ireland, Scandinavia and the near continent, e.g. France, Belgium and the Netherlands • There is fierce competition on the cross-Channel services between ferry companies and the Channel Tunnel • Cruising from UK ports is growing in popularity • 1.2 million British people took a cruise in 2005 • Major cruise companies include Cunard, Ocean Village, Thomson Cruises and P&O
Air travel • Rapid growth in international tourism over the last 50 years is closely linked to the growth in air travel • Deregulation of air travel has increased competition between airlines and helped to keep fares low on an expanding network of routes • Britain has a number of world-class airlines, e.g. British Airways, Virgin Atlantic Airways, easyJet, bmi, etc.
Types of air travel services • Domestic – air travel within a country, e.g. a flight from Manchester to Stansted • International – flights between different countries, e.g. London Heathrow to New York • Scheduled – services that run to a published timetable (includes low-cost airlines) • Charter – services linked to package holidays, where tour operators contract with an airline for a specific route for a season, e.g. Newcastle to Alicante between Easter and the end of October
Textbook activity 1.6 Carry out some research on low-cost airlines to find out which companies fly from the following UK airports: Edinburgh, Cardiff, Birmingham, Stansted and Manchester. Choose one of the companies and find out more information on its route network, sample prices, additional services, fare structures, aircraft fleet, etc. Describe the interrelationships the airline has with other components of the travel and tourism industry, giving examples that include domestic, inbound and outbound tourism. This activity is designed to provide evidence for P1, P2 and M1
Airports • UK airports handled 228 million passengers in 2005 • Traffic at the 5 main London airports – Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted, Luton and London City – totalled 133 million passengers • Heathrow was the UK’s busiest airport with 68 million passengers • Traffic at UK regional airports is growing rapidly – the result of the increasing numbers of flights offered by the low-cost airlines, e.g. Ryanair, flybe, easyJet, Jet2, bmibaby, etc.
Get the full version! • This is a sample (30 slides only) Unit 1 PowerPoint presentation from the Travel and Tourism Book 1 Tutor's CD-ROM • The full PowerPoint contains 87 slides • The Travel and Tourism Book 1 Tutor's CD-ROM is filled with extra teaching resources, based on the specific learning outcomes for each unit, saving valuable preparation time and allowing you to print and photocopy just the pages you need and to use all the resources on student intranet sites, whiteboards and VLEs • The Travel and Tourism Book 1 Tutor's CD-ROM is available from • www.tandtpublishing.co.uk