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Bacterial diseases. Cell morphologies Spherical (coccus) Rod (bacillus) Spiral (spirillum) Disease producing types of bacteria Obligate R. sal Mycobacterium Non-obligate or facultative. Bacterial diseases. Infections Bacteremia (w/o clinical infection)

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slide1

Bacterial diseases

  • Cell morphologies
    • Spherical (coccus)
    • Rod (bacillus)
    • Spiral (spirillum)
  • Disease producing types of bacteria
    • Obligate
      • R. sal
      • Mycobacterium
    • Non-obligate or facultative
slide2

Bacterial diseases

  • Infections
    • Bacteremia (w/o clinical infection)
    • Septicemia (w/ clinical infection)
      • Inflammation, hemorrhage, and necrosis
    • Toxins
        • Kill host cells
        • Make blood vessels more porous
slide3

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Columnaris (Flavobacterium columnare)
    • Infects many species
      • Ictalurids – severely affected
      • Ornamental species
      • Salmonids (migrating adults/smolts)
    • Clinical signs
      • Generally begins as external infection
      • (fins, skin, gills)
        • Skin lesions –
        • Gill lesions – white to brown necrotic
        • areas
slide4

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Columnaris (Flavobacterium columnare)
    • Internal (systemic)
      • Little or no pathological changes in organs
    • Diagnosis:
    • Typical lesions (body, fin, gills)
    • Long thin (gm -) rods in wet mounts
    • “hay stacking” –
    • Isolate on low nutrient agar
slide5

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

ESC

  • Enteric septicemia of catfish (Edwardsiella ictaluri)
    • “Hole in the head disease”
    • Number 1 catfish disease
      • Channel catfish – most susceptible
      • Temp. dependent 20-28C
    • Clinical signs
    • Acute, subacute, and chronic disease
    • Lethargic –
    • Spiral swimming patterns, pale gills,
    • exophthalmia, enlarged abdomens
slide6

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Enteric septicemia of catfish (Edwardsiella ictaluri)
    • Clinical signs
    • Depigmented lesions – 1-3mm on flanks and
    • backs
    • chronic - form open ulcers along skull “hole
    • in head”
    • Hemorrhage at base of fins, skin under jaw,
    • and belly (paint brush hemorrhage)
slide7

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Enteric septicemia of catfish (Edwardsiella ictaluri)
    • Diagnosis
    • Growth on culture plates (BHI or TSA) also
    • selective media
    • FAT/ELISA
    • Characteristics
    • Short gm neg. rod (.8 x 1-3um)
    • Many biochemical tests to confirm
slide8

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Edwardsiella tarda
    • Edwarsiellosis
    • May affect adult fish and many other species
    • - catfish, eels, (20 f/w species) – mostly warmwater
    • - 2 occasions (implicated in salmonid infections)
        • Adult Chinook (Rouge river, OR)
        • Adult Atlantic salmon -Nova Scotia, CA
      • Zoonotic – transmittable to humans
      • Sources – birds, snakes, etc.
slide9

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Motile Aeromonas septicemia: (A. hydrophila, sobria,
  • caviae)
    • MAS: 1927 – worldwide distribution
    • - warm, cool, coldwater species
    • Mainly external –
    • May not be primary problem – contamination from
    • mucus
    • May promote secondary infection by other
    • bacteria, or protozoan parasites
slide10

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Mycobacteriosis (Mycobacteria sp.)
  • Every fish species is susceptible – striped bass,
  • tilapia, whitefish, etc
      • Zoonotic
      • Common in aquarium fish - chronic
    • Granuloma formation
    • Control:
    • Depopulate and disinfect
slide11

Warmwater Bacterial diseases

  • Streptoccocal infections: Streptococcus iniae(recent
  • problem)
  • Tilapia
  • - one of the most serious pathogens
  • (promoted by intensive rearing in closed systems)
  • - mortality may be up to 75%
  • 1995-1996:
  • reports of human infections
      • Wounds from cleaning farm-reared fish
      • Major concern in commercial industry