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Ch.8 – Section 2 People on the Move. Streets paved with gold?. The Immigrant Experience. People immigrated to America to escape crop failures, shortages of land/jobs, rising taxes, & lack of freedoms. Between 1865 & 1920 – 30 million immigrants 2 examples: Ireland & Russia

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ch 8 section 2 people on the move
Ch.8 – Section 2

People on the Move

the immigrant experience
The Immigrant Experience
  • People immigrated to America to escape crop failures, shortages of land/jobs, rising taxes, & lack of freedoms.
  • Between 1865 & 1920 – 30 million immigrants
  • 2 examples: Ireland & Russia
  • Ireland – left due to potato famine
  • Russia – Jews left due to pogroms – violent massacres of Jews
crossing the ocean
Crossing the Ocean
  • Late 1880’s steam powered ships – 2 or 3 weeks to cross Atlantic Ocean
  • Pacific Ocean took longer to cross
  • Conditions were similar on both voyages
  • Most immigrants travel in steerage – large open area beneath the ship’s deck – limited toilet facilities, no privacy, poor food – tickets cheap
arriving in america
Arriving in America
  • Immigrants arrived through several port cities
  • Europeans – Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New York
  • Asians – San Francisco or Seattle
  • Prior to 1880’s immigration was mostly open
  • In 1882 – Federal Govt. began excluding certain categories of immigrants
immigrants from europe
Immigrants from Europe
  • 1892 – Ellis Island opened – in NY Harbor – near Statue of Liberty
  • Physical exams required of all new immigrants in 1892 - quarantine – time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease
  • Some w/certain disease were deported
immigrants from europe continued
Immigrants from Europe continued
  • Immigrants often settled in communities established by previous settlers from their homelands – ethnic enclaves
  • Also called ghettos – areas in which one ethnic or racial group dominated
  • Many chose to live near others of their ethnic group due to comfort of culture, language, food, etc . . .
immigrants from asia
Immigrants from Asia
  • Largest group of Asian immigrants from China & Japan – usually came through Western ports
  • Because culture different from European immigrants – often targets of suspicion, hostility, & racism
  • Chinese immigrants recruited in large numbers to work on the transcontinental railroad
  • After settled in their own ethnic enclaves
  • Because Chinese immigrants were willing to work for low wages they were targets of the American labor unions
  • Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 – prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country – did not send prior immigrants back to China – repealed in 1943
immigrants from asia continued
Immigrants from Asia continued
  • Many early Japanese immigrants came from Hawaii (didn’t become US territory until 1898)
  • As sugar plantation workers they saw a better life on mainland
  • By 1920 – 200 thousand Japanese immigrants
  • Although more involved in private business – labor unions still target Japanese immigrants
  • Racist actions – San Francisco prohibiting Asians from attending schools w/non-Asians
  • This angered Japan – eventually a compromise was reached
  • Gentlemen’s Agreement – called on S.F. to end school policy & Japan agreed to stop issuing passports to laborers
immigration from mexico
Immigration from Mexico
  • 1902 – Newlands National Reclamation Act – promoted irrigation of SW lands of US
  • Turned desert into farmland – led to hiring of Mexican laborers to work on farms & ranches
  • Also built railroads at very low wages
  • 1900 to 1910 – approx. 50 thousand Mexican immigrants
  • “Pull” (new opportunities) vs. “Push” (civil war in Mexico) factors for immigrant
  • This period of immigration continued & led to strong Spanish speaking population in SW part of the country
ch 8 politics immigration and urban life sec 3 the challenge of the cities
Ch.8 Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life

Sec.3 The Challenge of the Cities

expanding cities
Expanding Cities
  • Cities such as N.Y., Philly, Chicago, St. Louis, and others were bursting at the seams
  • Not only millions of immigrants, but millions of Americans migrating from rural areas
  • Between 1880 & 1910 – U.S. population living on farms fell from 72 to 54 percent
  • Large African American migration as well – to escape not only poverty – but racism & violence as well
how cities grew
How Cities Grew
  • Both good & bad features of city life – from subways & skyscrapers to smog & slums
  • Prior to Civil War – cities not much bigger than 3 or 4 miles across
  • Introduction of public horse drawn carriages that traveled on rails – increased size of the cities
  • Led to suburbs – residential communities surrounding the cities
  • Improved transportation such as - Elevated trains, cable cars, trolleys, & eventually automobiles led to more suburban expansion
how cities grew continued
How Cities Grew continued
  • Cities also grew up as well as outward
  • With Bessemer steel girders buildings were built taller and taller
  • 1852 – Elisha Graves Otis invented a safety device that made passenger elevators possible
  • 1885 - 1st skyscraper – Chicago’s Home Insurance Company Building – 10 stories high, 4 elevators
  • As cities expanded, specialized areas such as financial, government, retail, or industrial formed
urban living conditions
Urban Living Conditions
  • Many mill & factory owners built housing for their workers
  • Often they built tenements – low cost apartment buildings designed to house as many families as possible
  • A group of dirty run-down tenements could transform an area into a slum
conditions in the slums
Conditions in the Slums
  • Poverty, overcrowding, & neglect led to many urban issues
  • Trees & grass disappeared – little green space
  • Soot from coal fired engines & boilers polluted the air
  • Open sewers attracted rats & other vermin
  • Disease was easily spread – cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, diphtheria, & typhoid thrived in tenements
  • Children were very vulnerable – in one NYC tenement area 6 out of 10 babies died before age 1
conditions in the slums continued
Conditions in the Slums continued
  • Fire was a constant danger – could quickly spread
  • Great Chicago Fire of 1871 – unsure of start – but 18,000 buildings burned, 250 people died, 100,000 left homeless
  • Property damage - $200 million ($1 billion in today’s dollars)
light air
Light & Air
  • Lack of good ventilation – spread disease
  • 1879 – change in NY laws required outside window in every room
  • Led to dumbbell tenements - narrowed in middle, gaps on either side – air shafts to bring light & air inside
  • Had some impact but not much
  • Rotting garbage often at bottom of shaft
  • Disease like cholera & typhoid linked to contaminated water
  • Tenement residents drew water from common pipe or pump in yard
  • Cites started to improve water public water systems
  • Build reservoirs to collect clean water
  • Later introduced chlorination & filtration
  • Laws introduced to require indoor bathrooms rather than outhouses
results of city growth
Results of City Growth
  • Flight of middle class and wealthy out of city as urbanization increase – gap between rich & poor grew wider
  • Cities often kept rich neighborhoods near the city center for wealthy – Ex. Palmer Woods – Detroit
  • Urban growth put pressure on city to improve services - police, fire, transportation, sewage, electric, water, & health care
rise of political bosses
Rise of Political Bosses
  • Political machine – an unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power – usually headed by a single powerful “boss”
  • Worked through exchange of favors & handing out of jobs – vote in return
  • Graft – use of one’s job to gain profit – major source of income for political machines
  • Immigrants often helped support the machines – as they helped them when govt. & private business did not
famous bosses
Famous “Bosses”
  • George B. Cox – Cincinnati – Republican – ran a political machine – but attempted to improve conditions for city – police & services
  • William Marcy Tweed or “Boss Tweed” controlled Tammany Hall – political club that ran NYC Democratic Party
  • Plundered city treasury w/fake expenses
  • Eventually died in jail after being convicted of corruption