CHAPTER 16 QUIT People and Empires in the Americas, 900–1500 Chapter Overview Time Line Diverse Societies of North America 1 SECTION Mayan Kings and Cities 2 SECTION The Aztecs Control Central Mexico 3 SECTION The Inca Create a Mountain Empire 4 SECTION GRAPH MAP Visual Summary
CHAPTER 16 Chapter Overview HOME People and Empires in the Americas, 900–1500 In the Americas, Native American, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations develop prior to the arrival of the Europeans. These civilizations, reflecting their geographic diversity, all develop sophisticated social, political, and economic institutions.
CHAPTER 16 1500 500 HOME People and Empires in the Americas, 900–1500 Time Line 500sTeotihuacan reaches population peak in central Mexico. 900Classic period of Mayan civilization ends. 1502Montezuma II crowned Aztec emperor. 1325Aztecs build Tenochtitlan. 800Anasazi culture develops in the Southwest. 1100Mississippian culture thrives at Cahokia. 1438Pachacuti becomes Inca emperor.
1 HOME Diverse Societies of North America Key Idea The dwellings and characteristics of Native American cultures, such as the Pueblos and Mound Builders, reflect their different environments. Common patterns of trade, religion, and social structure link diverse Native American peoples. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Diverse Societies of North America Overview •potlatch •Anasazi •pueblos •Mississippian •Iroquois •totems WHY IT MATTERS NOW Complex North American societies were linked to each other through culture and economics. Traditions and ideas from these cultures became part of the cultures of North America. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment Northwest Coast Southwest HOME Diverse Societies of North America 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast Native Americans of the Northwest Coast and the Southwest. Both Irrigated desert lands; used pottery; built cliff dwellings, pueblos, kivas Believed in nature spirits; believed in Great Spirit; believed land was for everyone; sought harmony with nature; felt family was the basic unit Gathered food and hunted, fished; differences in wealth created social classes; had potlatches continued . . .
1 HOME Diverse Societies of North America 1 Section Assessment 2. In what ways did the peoples of North America share similar cultural patterns?THINK ABOUT •how the people viewed the environment •the role of family in their lives •religion ANSWER Most of the native people shared a love of the earth, valued the family unit, believed in the Great Spirit, and used totems. Possible Response: continued . . .
1 HOME Diverse Societies of North America 1 Section Assessment 3. What evidence is there that societies in North America interacted with each other? THINK ABOUT •how goods were obtained •ways to defend against enemies •what kinds of evidence historians find and consider valid ANSWER •Cultural groups throughout North America traded for goods they needed. •Groups established alliances such as the Iroquois League for defense. •Artifacts, ruins, and stories offer evidence of such interaction. Possible Responses: End of Section 1
2 HOME Mayan Kings and Cities Key Idea Mayan civilization flourishes in Mesoamerica during the first millennium A.D. Mayan cities and farms, religious practices, and achievements reflect a highly advanced culture. By the 900s, however, the Maya are in decline. Overview Assessment
2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Mayan Kings and Cities Overview •Tikal •glyph •codex •Popol Vuh WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Maya developed a highly complex civilization based on city-states controlled by dynasties of kings. Descendants of the Maya still occupy the same territory. Assessment
2 2 Section Assessment The Maya developed a highly complex civilization in Mesoamerica. HOME Mayan Kings and Cities 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List details to support the following main idea: “The Maya developed a highly complex civilization in Mesoamerica.” You may want to review the characteristics of a civilization found in Chapter 1. They built spectacular city-states ruled by dynasties of god-kings. Created huge architectural sites Developed sophisticated farming methods Developed advanced mathematics, astronomy, and writing systems Created a complex religious system continued . . .
2 HOME Mayan Kings and Cities 2 Section Assessment 2. How important do you think the development of advanced mathematics was in the creation of the Mayan calendar?THINK ABOUT •how records are kept over long periods of time •the need for numbers larger than 20 •the need for precision ANSWER Advanced mathematics was critical to the development of the Mayan calendar. The Maya needed a system of mathematics to record celestial movements over the years, to handle large numbers, and to calculate the solar and lunar year with great precision. Possible Response: End of Section 2
3 HOME The Aztecs Control Central Mexico Key Idea In the Valley of Mexico, the Aztecs emerge in the 1200s, building on the foundations of earlier cultures. They conquer neighboring states to create the largest empire in Mesoamerica. By the 1500s, the empire begins to unravel. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Aztecs Control Central Mexico Overview •obsidian •Quetzalcoatl •Triple Alliance •Montezuma II WHY IT MATTERS NOW Through alliances and conquest, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in Mexico. This time period saw the origins of one of the 20th century’s most populous cities, Mexico City. Assessment
3 HOME The Aztecs Control Central Mexico 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe the main events that led to the establishment and growth of the Aztec Empire. Arrive in Valley of Mexico Build Tenochtitlan Form the Triple Alliance Conquer many lands continued . . .
3 HOME The Aztecs Control Central Mexico 3 Section Assessment 2. How did the Aztec need for victims for sacrifice lead to problems controlling the empire?THINK ABOUT •reactions of the conquered peoples •changes in army tactics ANSWER •Demands for victims for sacrifice aroused the hatred of the conquered peoples. •The goal of the army was to capture their enemies, not kill them. •After a time, a number of provinces rebelled against Aztec rule. Possible Responses: End of Section 3
4 HOME The Inca Create a Mountain Empire GRAPH MAP Key Idea In the Peruvian Andes, the Inca in the 1400s establish the largest empire in the Americas. They create a highly controlled economy and an official religion. In the early 1500s, civil war weakens the empire. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME The Inca Create a Mountain Empire GRAPH MAP Overview •Pachacuti •ayllu •mita •quipu WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Inca built a vast empire supported by taxes, governed by a bureaucracy, and linked by extensive road systems. The Inca system of government was similar to some socialist govern-ments in the 20th century. Assessment
4 The Inca built a vast empire, which was largely unified under their control. HOME The Inca Create a Mountain Empire GRAPH MAP 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the methods the Inca used to build a vast empire and unify it under their control. Subject peoples kept their rulers and customs. Incan cities built in conquered lands Economic activity controlled Incan schools founded Extensive road system built Single official language used Empire’s units ruled by central Bureaucracy continued . . .
4 HOME The Inca Create a Mountain Empire GRAPH MAP 4 Section Assessment 2. Why do you think the Inca used the ayllu system as the basis for governing the people of the empire? THINK ABOUT •ways to control a large empire •the ease of using a system that already existed ANSWER • The system was already in place. • It allowed the Inca to organize thousands of people into manageable units. • People viewed it as a traditional practice. Possible Responses: continued . . .
4 HOME The Inca Create a Mountain Empire GRAPH MAP 4 Section Assessment 3. What were advantages and disadvantages of the Incan welfare state? ANSWER • Advantages: All people cared for during good and bad times; offered stability • Disadvantages: High taxes, forced labor for the state, no private economic activity, limited opportunity for advancement, less freedom Possible Responses: End of Section 4