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Group 4 What role can technology play in changing c ooperation ?. Adhil Bernhard Chara Susanne Tycho. Agenda. Introduction Release phase Revolt / Reorganisation Exploitation Conservation Recap Sticky notes assignment Discussion. Introduction. Groupmembers

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agenda
Agenda

Introduction

Release phase

Revolt / Reorganisation

Exploitation

Conservation

Recap

Sticky notes assignment

Discussion

introduction
Introduction

Groupmembers

Introduction of subject

What role can technology play in changing cooperation?

Explanation of definitions

Cooperation

Technology

Adaptive Cycle

Movement in the cycle

definitions
Definitions

Cooperation

Co-operation is the process in which people or organizations work together to achieve a result that will benefit all of them (collaborate).

Technology

Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function.

adaptive cycle
AdaptiveCycle
  • The Adaptive Cycle can be described as four phases of change that are characteristics of many systems.
  • The Adaptive Cycle can be interpreted as a sequential process which the organization goes through.
movement in cycle
Movement in Cycle
  • Equilibriumphase
    • Goals pursuad & realized
    • Customers are satisfied
    • No reasonformakingnewstrategy
  • Crisis phase
    • Disturbance of externalinfluences
    • Uncertainty / fear
    • Innovation is scary
  • New combinations
    • Look to the futurewithconfidence
    • Searchingfornewalternatives
  • Entrepreneurship
    • Finalchoice is implemented
    • Innovationrocks
2 release phase
2. Release phase

Equilibrium  Chaos

  • Potential
    • Low
  • Connectedness
    • High but declining
  • People behavior
    • Looking for alternatives and change of behavior
  • Process support
    • Align the enabling technology with the membership needs and supporting processes
  • Resilience
    • Low but increasing

“Period of decline and destruction”

what can cause a crisis
Whatcancause a crisis?
  • Weather or natural effects
    • e.g. Hurricane Katrina (Bahamas, August 23, 2005)
    • Hard Rock Hotel and Casino
  • Workflow
  • Changes in policies / placement
  • Country's Economy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7inY3k8y4d0

types of crisis
Types of crisis

To appreciate the depth of preparations needed, executives should examine their crisis capabilities in:

  • Technical systems
  • Human factor systems
  • Infrastructural systems
  • Cultural systems
  • Emotional / Belief systems
phases of crisis management
Phases of Crisis Management
  • Signal Detection

- Internal (Information Channels)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNKmSbaTKS0

- External (InnoCentive, Web crawlers)

  • Preparation / Prevention
    • "If it ain't broke, don't fix it“
    • creation of crisis teams as well as crisis training and simulation exercises.
  • Containment / Damage Limitation
    • Evacuation plans, neutralise product spills
  • Recovery
    • Short-term & long-term business recovery, data back-up
  • Learning
phases of crisis management 2
Phases of Crisis Management (2)

How can this phase be facilitated?

 A crisis in the negative sense BUT also an opportunity for innovation...

Technology:

  • - facilitate internal and external cooperation

1. Video conferencing

2. Social Media

3. Wiki, blogs, etc.

4. Cloud Computing

5. Software for blind people (Jaws, etc.)

social network analysis
SocialNetworkAnalysis

Organization could be seen as a network of actors

You could analyze the current state of the network. E.g. by inquiring who people collaborate with, conducting personality tests like spiral dynamics

This could be supported by electronic questionnaires or social network analysis software. (if social network software is used in the organization)

social network analysis1
SocialNetworkAnalysis

When you have a good view of the current situation of the network then you could try to change the pattern of the network

E.g. with the aim to improve knowledge transfer to create a more exploration focused network and increase innovation

3 reorganisation
3. Reorganisation

Who are the customers?

CustomerProfiling

Predictivemodelling

  • Reorganisation:
    • Technology that facilitates this phase
  • Social Network analysers
  • Data mining
  • Data warehousing
  • Analysis
  • Business Plan Analysis
  • DSS_decision support system
  • Financial viabilities
  • Strategy forming
3 revolt trigger
3. Revolt: trigger

Fast and small

Cascading effect

critical changes
Criticalchanges
  • Institutions
  • Economy
  • Developing nations
  • Societies
  • Knowledge systems
the arab spring
The Arab Spring

Revolt

Revolution

Social Media

back in time
Back in time

15years back in communication technologies

technology co operation
TechnologyCo-operation

Enabling environmentGeneratingacceptance & understanding

Business 2 Business

InfrastructureCompetitiveness

Germany to SouthAfrica:

DaimlerChrysler

KnowledgeSkills

chapter 11
Chapter 11

Kodak

Bankruptcy

Crisis – technological

Reorganisation of business model

Focus on profitability

how could technology facilitate experimentation
Howcouldtechnologyfacilitateexperimentation?

Link withCynefinframework (Snowden, 2007)

experimentation
Experimentation

A couple of ways in which technology could support this experimentation process

Virtually testing the effects of the experiment/pilots/probes by simulation

Testing of new products, services, systems etc. before actually building them could be facilitated by simulation or expert systems.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYWXZprJC-E

experimentation1
Experimentation
  • Supporting the process of (rapidly) creating new products, services, business processes, systems etc. (could also be creating new technology itself) (Roberts et al, 2010; Ciborra 1996)
  • Technology facilitating experimentation in building new information systems
    • In general software engineering, numerous common prototyping tools and methodologies have been developed (Freiberg et al, 2012)
    • Software toolkit to quickly construct a (part) of a system in order to quickly discover flaws, sense the response, have something to help with communication with different stakeholders etc.
    • Emphasis on evaluation
experimentation2
Experimentation
  • Technology facilitating experimentation/probing in building new business processes, products, services etc
    • Flexible IT environment
    • Responsive IT-support is a vital component of this effort. Assembling an IT team to work hand in hand with the managers on the pilots etc.
  • Facilitating and increasing Internal and external reflexivity by technology. (Roberts et al, 2010)
    • Focus on measuring the outcomes of the probes/pilots/experiments and incorporate the lessons into the organization.
    • This means integrating feedback from both internal and external stakeholders ( e.g. a set of users or customers).
experimentation3
Experimentation
  • Examples are:
  • Google Online Services
  • Or applied to a more traditional setting: A fast-food company uses IT systems and analytics at test sites to gauge the impact of new menu choices on revenue, operations, customer experience.
  • Incorporating mentioned technological support to experimentation would require the right set of technical capabilities and a flexible IT environment.
4 exploitation
4. Exploitation
  • From New Combinations to Entrepreneurship and new Businessestablishments
  • Choose best option from new combinations (prototypes)
  • Certain of what is wanted, uncertain if viable
  • Capitalism
    • look for new opportunities or gaps in the marketleads to Entrepreneurshipaddress a need, make profit and flourish
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTgJNWs-gWA
exploitation
Exploitation

Choice made - intuition & emotions

New combinations of workforce(databases)

Psychometric tests (Spiral dynamics)

New business units - business plans

Re-deploy, new appointments, retrenchments

Resistance vs new opportunities/growth

exploitation1
Exploitation
  • Market penetration
  • Establishing niche in market (Social Media)
  • Streamlining operation
  • Standardisation
  • Automation
exploitation2
Exploitation
  • Marketing tools
  • Advertising technologies (web, print, social media, billboards...)
  • Funding - Investors, Angel funding
  • Financial software - Banking, e-Commerce
  • Establishingpolicies
  • Developingcompany website
  • Definecommunicationpolicies (email, website, twitter, Google+, Telepresence, ...)
    • Intranet / Internet
    • Convergence
exploitation positive side
Exploitation – Positive side
  • Globalisation and internet connectivity
    • Entrepreneurship
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6MhAwQ64c0
  • UK Technology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r-maNCr406U

  • Cooperation between branches and countries
    • Telepresence - save time, travel and accommodation
    • Promotes 'Green society'
exploitation negative side
Exploitation – Negative side
  • Cheap labour – sweatshops
    • Nike
    • Walmart
  • Need for automation using technology
  • Viruses (attack competition - opposite of cooperation)
  • Hacking
  • Need for monitoring tools and security
  • Cooperation between countries
conservation
Conservation

Towards a new business as ususal

  • Incremental transition to a new equilibrium
  • From opportunistic adaption to specialization
  • Building up size, knowledge, power and capital, start making profits, towards a new stable environment
conservation1
Conservation
  • What has to be changed is clear, now it has to be implemented.
  • So you need to:
    • Keep employees informed and involved in order

to decrease uncertainty and resistance

  • Communication should focus on:
    • Decreasing uncertainty and job insecurity
    • Creating commitment for change
    • Decrease resistance
what about technology in this phase
Whatabouttechnology in thisphase
  • Communication should be Two-Way

Involved employees should have the feeling that information is shared with them (not forced on them) and that they can consult and actively participate in the communication process. (Waddel and Sohal, 1998)

  • Technology could support this communication process
  • Types of technology that would be suitable in this process: newsletter by email, bulletinboard, dashboard, intranet, chat, videoconferencing
role of technology
Role of technology
  • Some other ideas on the role of technology in this phase
    • Share and spread internal routines and basic capabilities
    • Facilitating training and reflection on the standardized routines and capabilities (e.g. TeamRoom).
    • But you would also need to think about: Company confidentiality, Protecting intellectual property
  • When a new BAU has been establishedtechnology is oftenfocusedon:
    • Driving efficiency
    • Optimize delivery
    • Lower costs
    • Optimization and efficiency
social media crisis management
Social Media & Crisis Management

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aMUPaDBXqlk

recap
Recap

“What role can technology play in changing cooperation?”

Different phases of the cycle incorporate a different way of collaboration

Different role of technology in each phase

Traditional focus of technology and information management has been on supporting the equilibrium

Emerging technologies have shifted attention more towards the right side of the model

recap1
Recap

Role of technology in supporting the organization in dealing with crisis

To incorporate/operationalizethe discussed roles of technology (e.g. supporting search process, innovation, experimentation) you would need a different kind of approach to the use and management of technology.

“Character of the information provision should be more that of a toolbox available to the business professional. According to the circumstance he/she can choose which IT tools to use”. (Abcouwer and Parson)

Provision of some kind of basis infrastructure that supports this more ad hoc use of technology use

sticky notes assignment
Stickynotesassignment

Think of somesort of technology and put in on a ‘post-it’ (includeyour name)

Think of whyit is in thisquadrant!

15 minutes

Put the ‘post-it’ on the board in the correct quadrant

questions
Questions?

Should a company diversify operations creating a variety of smaller business units (and cooperate), or focus solely on core business?

Should a company expand operations by creating franchises (and cooperate) or stay singular?

Should social media be left open or be curtailed/restrained during the Entrepreneurship phase? (Quadrant 4)

Can you function (survive ) nowadays without any kind of technology? (e.g. email, internet, what’s app, facebook etc…). If so, how?

How easy is it for people to come up with ideas in order to overcome the crisis when they are already under the shock of a crisis?

Can a crisis be both negative and positive?

the end
The End

A niceway of usingSocial Media and collaboratingwithfriends and colleques etc.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnv6K5JmpTM