Modern Canada A Changing Society
Today’s Focus • Canada’s changing society after WWII • Social, demographic, political and economic trends • PLO’s – describe the role of women in terms of soci/poli/econ change in Canada • PLO’s – assess the development and impact of Canadian social policies and programs related to immigration, the welfare state and minority rights
Changes after WWII • Booming economy • Thousands of immigrants • New houses in suburbs • More cars, televisions, radios • Changing culture – rock n roll! • Materialism
Welcoming Newcomers • After WWII, millions of refugees around the world – people uprooted by war and nothing to return to • Known as displaced persons • Canada accepts 165k • By ’67, 2.5 million newcomers had arrived in Canada • Moved mostly to the cities, unlike earlier immigration patterns in Canadian history
Economic Growth • Rapid in crease in production of aluminum = manufacture of aircraft • Wood and paper production rose, as did mining and smelting • “Increase in demand for petroleum = fuel tanks, trucks and airplanes • Oil fields = jobs in production, transportation, processing, and providing services • Agriculture taken over my manufacturing • Rural to modern industrial nation
Societal Changes • Women employed in great numbers • Immigration of 48,000 war brides and 21,000 children • Allowed more immigration to fill demand for labour, but still preferred countries in Europe to enter Canada.
Canadians of Suburbia! • Between the baby boom and immigration, huge increase in demand for housing • Cities expanded outwards, where land was cheaper • The new housing developments: suburbs • Communities developed identities of their own – schools, malls, parks etc.
Suburban Values • A new set of values develops • Centered on traditional family • Women returned to the stay-at-home role • Family sizes were larger than present – 1945 to 1960 known as the baby boom • 6.7 million kids born between ’46 and ’61
Age of Automobile • Bought 3.5 million cars in the 1950s • Living in suburbs – great convenience • Grew fancier with chrome, fins and fancy tail lights • Negatives: -Lots of fuel needed = dependence on oil -Atmospheric pollution
Pop Culture • The car becomes central to Canadian life • A necessity for those in the suburbs • Affects growth and development of cities – urban sprawl, etc • TV also becomes central • Magnified cultural trends, encouraged consumer society – key role in our societies economic engince
Teen Culture • Increase affluence and peace allows for the invention of “teenagers” • More education, money, leisure time, opportunities • Develop their own culture and trends • Rock ‘n’ Roll (Elvis, etc.) takes root
Canadian Culture • People start to worry about American cultural influence • Massey Commission formed, to study Canadian culture – recommend protection from US influence • 1957 – Canada Council created – award grants to artists • CBC was put in charge of developing Canadian TV and programming • 1968 – CRTC (Canadian Radio – Television and Telecommunications Commission) created to regulate foreign media content in Canada, and impose rules requiring Canadian content.
Prosperity • Unlike after WWI, the gov’t was prepared for economic transition after WWII - millions coming home – what to do? • King suggests maintaining Fed. gov’t influence in the economy to address employment and inflation issues • Prov’s not excited about this • Howe recommends tax breaks to encourage production of consumer goods – causes a boom • Also, beginning of transfer payments – prov’s give money to feds, who then redistribute wealth to those most in need
Resource Boom • Canada’s rich resources help the boom • Oil found in Leduc, Alberta in ’47 • Also, demand increases for many metals and minerals found in Canada
Infrastructure - page 187 • Trans-Canada Highway becomes a prime project, completed by 1970 • St. Lawrence Seaway built to link the Great Lakes to the Atlantic • Trans-Canada pipeline built to cheaply transport gas from Western to Central Canada • Kemano Project – dam construction for hydroelectricity to support aluminum smelting
Canadian Prime Ministers ’48-’68 • St. Laurent (’48-’57) – Liberal, rich, positive public image – (see pages 180-181 for more information) • Diefenbaker (’57-’63) - Conservative, first western PM, great orator and campaigner, populist (spoke for ordinary people), all Canadians equal, French disliked him (distinct culture) • Pearson (’63-’68) – Liberal, believed connection to Britain would be severed, Canada needed an identity for ALL Canadians, flag, improvements to welfare system
Social Welfare • King had intro’d UI, family allowance • Pearson intro’s CPP – Cdn. Pension Plan, 1966 • Cdn. Assistance Plan as well – financing for welfare • Medicare is intro’d – a cause championed by Tommy Douglas (NDP) of Sask. • First enacted in 1962 in Sask., Cdn. System pattern after it • Medical care without paying directly • Medical Care Act 1965 – Feds and Provs share costs of Medicare
Trudeau Era • A man well-suited to his times: Flashy, flamboyant, outspoken, intelligent • Dated celebrities, drove fast cars, dressed down at work • Canadians loved him – Trudeaumania • “Just Society” was his catch-phrase: gov’t had a duty to protect rights and freedoms, foster well-being, stay out of private life
Times they are a changin’ • The late 60’s and 70’s were an era of change and protest • 3 particularly influential groups in Canada – women’s movement, student movement, environmental movement
Women’s Movement • During 60’s feminism emerges • Resented isolation in modern life, menial jobs, etc • Royal Commission on the Status of Women – 1967 • Recommends: women’s right to choose where they work, society should help with raising children (daycare, etc.), entitlement to Maternity leave and Feds should help women overcome discrimination
Student Movement • Centered around protest of mainstream society • Sex, drugs and Rock’n’Roll – major changes in culture and outlook on morality, religion, etc. • Also some had strong political beliefs – protesting for aboriginal, women’s and environmental rights • Many also became involved in protests against Vietnam War as well • Music marked the generation – Dylan, Stones, Beatles, etc.
Environmental Movement • Started by “Silent Spring”, written by Rachel Carson • Warned of irreparable damage to the Earth by modern society • Public concern fuels the movement, gov’t and business reluctant • Public pressure forces creation of environmental protection laws • Groups like Greenpeace are created (starts in B.C., 1970) – sometimes using dramatic tactics to draw attention to their cause
Summary – Key Points • Canada has undergone massive change since WWII- first with the Baby Boom and prosperity • Face of society has changed – multicultural and highly diverse, millions come from abroad • Women have changed their place in society for the better • Welfare state has been entrenched – CPP, UI, Medicare, etc. • Pop culture has had a huge influence on Canadians – influencing trends, movements, policy