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Modernization Ch. 12

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  1. ModernizationCh. 12

  2. Vocab • China - resources and products, Opium War, Boxer Rebellion, Taiping Rebellion, Dowager Empress Cixi, Open Door Policy • Japan - Meiji Era, Commodore Perry, Treaty of Kangawa, Russo-Japanese War, Conflicts over Korea • US - Panama Canal, Spanish-American War, Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary • Mexico - causes of instability, exports, Mexican Revolution, Santa Anna, Juarez, Pancho Villa, Zapata, Diaz, Mexican Constitution • What is modernization

  3. - Opium War - Extraterritorial rights - Open Door Policy - Taiping Rebellion - Boxer Rebellion - Treaty of Kangawa - Meiji Era - Russo-Japanese War - caudillo - Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna - Benito Juarez - Francisco Madero - “Pancho” Villa - Porfirio Diaz - Emiliano Zapata Vocab

  4. China • Chinese were prideful - looked down on all followers • 1793 - emperor finally agreed to see an ambassador from England • Ambassador brought many inventions from Europe, but the Emperor was not impressed, said the Chinese had everything they needed

  5. China • Self sufficient, had quick-growing rice and traded a century ago for sweet potatoes, maize, and peanuts • Rich in natural resources • Tin, salt, silver, iron • Manufactured silk, porcelain and cotton

  6. Tea-Opium Connection • Chinese only traded with Europe at Guangzhou • balance of power in China’s favor • European merchants wanted to find a product that the Chinese would desire • Opium in exchange for tea (eventually 12 million Chinese were addicted to it) • Emperor complained to Queen Victoria to end the trade (she refused)

  7. Opium War 1839-1842 • Mostly naval battles • British had steam-powered gunboats • Chinese were humiliated • Signed Treaty of Nanjing • Awarded Hong Kong to England • 1844 - allowed foreign countries extraterritorial rights (foreigners not subject to Chinese law at trading ports)

  8. Taiping Rebellion • People began rebelling against the Qing dynasty because of deteriorating conditions in the country • population increased, but food production did not • Opium addictions increasing • Hong Xiuquan - began recruiting followers to help him build the “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” • all people would share wealth

  9. Taiping Rebellion • By 1850s, 1 million people had joined the rebellion • Began taking control of southeastern China • Claimed Nanjing as the new capital • Hong Xiuquan withdrew from society, and placed his family members and trusted lieutenants in charge • Qing, French and British forces all attacked the Taiping • 1864 - Taiping government was brought down by internal fighting and outside assaults

  10. Foreign Influence • Internal uprisings and foreign powers were putting pressure on the government • Empress Cixi was committed to traditional values, but enacted reforms to improve the country • Education, diplomacy, military, manufacturing

  11. Foreign Influence • other countries took advantage of this time period, and attacked • After each treaty negotiation, foreign nations had more control over the Chinese economy • US was concerned that other countries would try to colonize China and shut out US influence • 1899 - US declared the Open Door Policy • China’s ports were to be left open to all nations

  12. Boxer Rebellion • 1898 - Emperor Guangxu wanted to modernize China • Education, economy, military and government • Qing officials saw this as a threat, and had the Empress Cixi arrest the young emperor and then reversed his reforms • Chinese became frustrated

  13. Boxer Rebellion • This frustration led to violence • Peasants resented the privileges of the rich and the Chinese Christians • Peasants formed a secret organization (Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists) called the Boxers • 1900 - Boxers descended on Beijing and surrounded the European section of the city

  14. Boxer Rebellion • Empress Cixi supported the Boxers, but did not send them any aid • A force made from several European countries quickly defeated the Boxers • Even through defeat, there was a surge of nationalism • believed that their country must resist foreign influence and have a government that meets their needs

  15. Beginnings of Reform • Qing Dynasty realized that China needed to change to survive • Empress Cixi sent a group of officials to travel the world and study how other governments operate • Japan, US, Britain, France, Germany, Russia & Italy • Came up with China turning into a constitutional monarchy • Finally established 11 years later • China experienced unrest for the next 40 years

  16. Review • Write down 8 questions from the section on China. • must be short answer-style • Leave space for an answer.

  17. Japan • Under the Tokugawa shogunate, people lived under the Closed Country policy • society was a very tight feudal system - prevented civil war and assured peace and prosperity • continued to trade with Chinese and Dutch (via Indonesia)

  18. Foreign Trade • 1800s - Western countries wanted to trade with Japan • would often make attempts to trade, but Japan would refuse • 1853 - US Commodore Matthew Perry took 4 ships to Tokyo Harbor • the cannons and the size of the ships amazed the Japanese • The Shogun agreed to speak with Perry

  19. Foreign Trade • Perry presented Shogun with a letter from President Millard Fillmore • Letter asked for free trade between Japan and the US • Perry said he would be back in 1 year with a larger fleet to hear Japan’s decision • Japan responded with the Treaty of Kangawa • would open 2 ports to trade • By 1860 Japan had many ports open to trade, granted extraterritorial rights

  20. Meiji Era (Reign of Mutsuhito) • Japanese were angry that the shogun gave in to the westerners • turned to the young emperor- Mutsuhito • he took control in 1867 • Mutsuhito knew the best way to keep Japan from being too influenced, was to modernize • sent advisors to different countries to find the best new ideas

  21. Meiji Era (Reign of Mutsuhito) • Advisors were inspired by: • Germany’s strong centralized government • Britain’s navy • Germany’s Army • US’s public education • Industrialization • By early 1900s, Japan had caught up with the West • railroads, coal, factories for silk and tea, shipbuilding

  22. Imperial Japan • By 1890 - Japan was the strongest military in Asia • had gained strength, and wanted to get rid of the foreigner’s extraterritorial rights • reassured the Westerners that they would still be treated well

  23. Japan attacks China • 1885 - Japan and China signed a hands-off agreement on Korea • 1894 - China broke the agreement (Korea’s king needed military support) • Japan sent in troops to fight the Chinese (was victorious) • drove Chinese out of Korea • gained territory in Manchuria

  24. Russo-Japanese War • Japan’s victory made it one of the major powers in Asia • Went to war with Russia over Manchuria • Japan offered to recognize Russia’s right to Manchuria if they stayed out of Korea • Russia refused, Japan launched a surprise attack • drove Russia out of Korea, captured Russia’s Pacific fleet and destroyed their Baltic fleet

  25. Russo-Japanese War • 1905 - Signed a peace treaty, aided by President Theodore Roosevelt • gave Japan the captured territories • forced Russia to withdraw from Manchuria and stay out of Korea

  26. Japanese Occupation of Korea • 1905 - Japan attacks Korea, makes it a protectorate • sent in advisors (grabbed more and more power from Korean government) • 1907 - Korean king gave up control • 1910 - Japan annexes Korea and takes over the society • Newspapers, schools, gave farms to Japanese, forbade Koreans from going into business

  27. United States • Read completely through section 3, then take notes • organize sections by major headings • major facts/ smaller headings • supporting details • When determining what to write - ask yourself if the fact/detail changes your understanding of the topic • Some very specific details aren’t worth writing

  28. Mexico • The result of Spanish colonialism and political instability caused many problems as Mexico tried to develop • Mexico also had to deal the the US and its desire to extend to the Pacific Ocean • Much of that land belonged to Mexico

  29. Santa Anna • Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna dominated politics during the early 1800s • led Mexican independence from Spain • Led Mexico when Spain tried to reclaim it • served as president 4 times • led Mexican Army to keep Texas territory

  30. Texas Revolt • 1820s - Mexico invited colonists to move to Texas to populate the country • Inexpensive land, but must follow Mexican laws • Anglos’ and Mexicans’ tensions grew • Texans wanted more self-government, but Mexico refused • Texas revolted in 1835

  31. Texas Revolt • Santa Anna led Mexican forces • won several early battles, but was captured at the battle of San Jacinto • Santa Anna was released when he promised to respect Texas’ independence • 1845 - US annexed Texas

  32. Texas Revolt • Mexico saw this as a sign of aggression • US and Mexico had a dispute over the border • Santa Anna led Mexico for 2 years • 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • US received 1/3 of Mexican lands • Santa Anna went into exile, returned powerless in 1874

  33. Benito Juarez - Liberty, Order and Progress • As Santa Anna’s power waned, Juarez began influencing politics • Juarez was a poor, orphaned, Zapotec Indian who worked to serve his country • Began La Reforma to change the government • Redistribute land • Separation of Church and State • More education for the poor • Santa Anna sent Juarez and leaders of La Reforma into exile

  34. Benito Juarez - Liberty, Order and Progress • Juarez and the other exiled reformers returned to Mexico • Rich conservative landowners made it difficult for peasants to escape poverty and debt • also disliked the new reforms, and launched a rebellion • Civil war lasted for 3 years, with the reformers emerging victorious, conservative leaders were exiled • Juarez was elected president

  35. French Invasion • Exiled conservatives plotted with Europeans to reconquer Mexico • Napoleon III sent an army and took over the country • Appointed Archduke Maximilian to rule • Mexicans fought against European rule, Napoleon III realized it was getting too costly • 1867 - French withdraw, Archduke was executed • Juarez is re-elected president • Began rebuilding the country - foreign trade, new roads and railroads, national education

  36. Porfirio Diaz - Order and Progress • During the French Invasion, another caudillo began gaining power • thought he would be rewarded for his efforts, but Juarez refused • Took control by taking power from the president • supported by military, Indians and small landowners • During his reign, elections were meaningless • Diaz offered land, power and political favors to anyone who supported him

  37. Porfirio Diaz - Order and Progress • Became a dictator, but Mexico still progressed • Railroads expanded, banks were built, currency stabilized, foreign investments grew • However, wealthy gained more and more land, and food costs rose

  38. Revolution • Many Mexicans began to protest Diaz’s rule • Francisco Madero ran for president, Diaz had him arrested and exiled • Madero called for revolution • Leaders in different parts of Mexico began to gather their own armies • “Pancho” Villa - was like a Mexican Robin Hood • Emiliano Zapata - wanted to return land to peasants and small farmers • 1911 - Diaz agreed to step down

  39. Power Struggle • 1911 - Madero was elected president • many did not agree with his policies (too liberal, not revolutionary enough etc) • 1913 - Madero resigned (he knew he could not stay in power), and was later assassinated • was replaced by General Victoriano Huerto, who was overthrown 15 months later • Revolutionary leaders allied with Venustiano Carranza • He then turned on those allies (killed Zapata which ended the civil war)

  40. New Mexican Constitution • Carranza began revising the Mexican Constitution (still in use today) • promoted education, land reforms and workers’ rights • Carranza did not approve the final version • He was overthrown by one of his generals • Reforms gained more influence • schools taught in Spanish and put an emphasis on nationalism • more land reforms • united the country

  41. Review • Make up 2 questions each on: • Japan • US • Mexico • Write the questions on a separate sheet of paper, leave room for answers.