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Ch 12. The Age of Jackson. The Age of Jackson. During his presidency, Andrew Jackson makes political and economic decisions that strongly affect the nation. Section 1. Politics of the People. Politics of the People.

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ch 12

Ch 12

The Age of Jackson

the age of jackson
The Age of Jackson
  • During his presidency, Andrew Jackson makes political and economic decisions that strongly affect the nation.
section 1
Section 1
  • Politics of the People
politics of the people
Politics of the People
  • Andrew Jackson’s election to the presidency in 1828 brings a new era of popular democracy.
the election of 1824
The Election of 1824
  • Democratic-Republican party has four presidential candidates:
    • John Quincy Adams has New England’s support
    • William Crawford has South’s support
the election of 18247
The Election of 1824
    • Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson both have the West’s support
  • Jackson wins popular votes but he fails to get majority of electoral votes
  • House of Representatives chooses John Quincy Adams
jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Andrew Jackson feels 1824 election has been stolen from him
  • Aims to win next election and he helps to split Democratic-Republican party
jacksonian democracy9
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Split eventually creates 2 parties:
    • 1) Democrats - grow out of Jackson’s supporters
    • 2) National Republicans - grow from Adams’s supporters
jacksonian democracy11
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Jackson backs interests of common people and supports majority rule
  • Jacksonian democracy— political power for all people and majority rule
the people s president
The People’s President
  • Andrew Jackson is the first president not from aristocratic background
  • Grows up on frontier farm and fights in the Revolutionary War were he was taken prisoner
the people s president13
The People’s President
  • After the war he becomes a lawyer and later a hero in War of 1812
section 2
Section 2
  • Jackson’s Policy Toward Native Americans
jackson s policy toward native americans
Jackson’s Policy Toward Native Americans
  • During Jackson’s presidency the Native Americans are forced to move west of the Mississippi River.
jackson s removal policy
Jackson’s Removal Policy
  • Andrew Jackson wants to move Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
  • Jackson believes Native Americans have one of two choices:
jackson s removal policy18
Jackson’s Removal Policy
    • 1) adopt white culture and become U.S. citizens
    • 2) move into Western territories
  • Gold is found in Georgia and Southern states give whites right to the Cherokee land
jackson s removal policy19
Jackson’s Removal Policy
  • Cherokee protest but President Andrew Jackson supports states
  • Congress passes Indian Removal Act (1830) which:
jackson s removal policy20
Jackson’s Removal Policy
    • requires Native Americans to relocate west
  • Policy forever changes relations between whites and Native Americans
the trail of tears
The Trail of Tears
  • Many Native Americans feel they have no choice but to sign treaties
  • Treaties require tribes to move to Indian Territory
  • Indian Territory—what is now Oklahoma, parts of Kansas, and Nebraska
the trail of tears23
The Trail of Tears
  • Beginning in 1831, Southeast tribes relocate to Indian Territory
  • Cherokee appeal decision to U.S. Supreme Court, to protect land
  • Court upholds appeal but Andrew Jackson ignores it
the trail of tears24
The Trail of Tears
  • U.S. troops force 16,000 Cherokee to march west in the fall and winter of 1838–1839
  • Without adequate clothing, about one-fourth of Cherokees die
the trail of tears25
The Trail of Tears
  • Harsh journey of the Cherokee becomes known as the Trail of Tears  
section 3
Section 3
  • Conflicts over States’ Rights
conflicts over states rights
Conflicts over States’ Rights
  • Jackson struggles to keep Southern states from breaking away from the Union over the issue of tariffs.
rising sectional differences
Rising Sectional Differences
  • In 1829, U.S. pulled apart by conflicts among its three main sections:
    • the Northeast
    • the South
    • the West
rising sectional differences30
Rising Sectional Differences
  • Northeasterners do not want public land in West sold at low prices
    • Cheap land attracts workers needed in Northeast factories
  • Westerners want cheap land in the West to attract settlers
rising sectional differences31
Rising Sectional Differences
  • Northeast and the West back internal improvement such as roads, canals
    • Roads and canals aid transportation of food, raw materials, and manufactured goods
rising sectional differences32
Rising Sectional Differences
  • South opposes internal improvement funded by tariffs on imports
  • South opposes tariffs because it’s economy depends on foreign trade
rising sectional differences33
Rising Sectional Differences
  • Northeast supports tariffs because they encourage purchases of domestic products
crisis over nullification
Crisis over Nullification
  • Vice-president John C. Calhoun creates doctrine of nullification:
    • 1) state has right to reject federal law it considers unconstitutional
    • 2) any state can nullify (reject) a federal law within its borders
crisis over nullification36
Crisis over Nullification
    • 3) Congress has no right to pass tariff favoring one area of nation
  • Doctrine gives South Carolina the right to nullify the tariff
  • Calhoun hopes doctrine will stop South Carolina from leaving the Union
the states right debate
The States’ Right Debate
  • Senate debates doctrine of nullification in the Webster-Hayne debate (1830)
  • Senator Robert Y. Hayne, South Carolina, supports nullification:
    • gives states a lawful way to defend their freedom
the states right debate38
The States’ Right Debate
  • Senator Daniel Webster, Massachusetts, opposes nullification:
    • the people not the states make the Union
  • President Andrew Jackson opposes nullification
section 4
Section 4
  • Prosperity and Panic
prosperity and panic
Prosperity and Panic
  • Jackson’s policies cause the economy to collapse after he leaves office and affect the next election.
the rise of the whig party
The Rise of the Whig Party
  • Senators Henry Clay and Daniel Webster want government to help economy
  • Martin Van Buren disagrees, economy will improve if left alone
  • At next election, Van Buren faces new political party, the Whig Party
the rise of the whig party44
The Rise of the Whig Party
  • Whigs oppose concentration of power in the president
  • Choose William Henry Harrison to run for president
  • Choose John Tyler to run for vice-president
the election of 1840
The Election of 1840
  • William Henry Harrison appeals to common people, wins 1840 election
  • Dies one month after being inaugurated
the election of 184046
The Election of 1840
  • First president to die in office
  • Vice-president John Tyler becomes president