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Chapter 13. Urban Patterns. Downtown los Angeles. Key Issue 1. Where have urban areas grown?. Urban Settlements. Urbanization: The process by which the population of cities grows Two Dimension: Increasing urban percentage Increasing urban populations Defining urban settlements

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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

Urban Patterns

Key issue 1

Key Issue 1

Where have urban areas grown?

Urban settlements
Urban Settlements

  • Urbanization: The process by which the population of cities grows

  • Two Dimension:

    • Increasing urban percentage

    • Increasing urban populations

  • Defining urban settlements

    • Social differences between urban and rural settlements

    • Physical definitions of urban settlements

Percent urban population
Percent Urban Population

Fig. 13-1: Percent of the population living in urban areas is usually higher in MDCs than in LDCs.

Increasing percentage of people in cities
Increasing Percentage of people in cities

Percentage of people living in cities is increasing

Increasing percentage of people in cities1
Increasing percentage of people in cities

  • In MDCs, ¾ of people live in urban areas

  • In LDCs, 2/5 of people live in urban areas

  • Urban population of Latin America is the exception

    • Large percentage of population live in urban areas

Increasing percentage of people in cities2
Increasing percentage of people in cities

  • High percentage of urban dwellers in MDCs

    • Industrial Revolution, 19th Century

      • Migration from farm work to factories & services in urban areas

    • Growth of Services, 20th Century

      • Rising employment in manufacturing & services

    • Decrease in rural population

Increasing percentage of people in cities3
Increasing percentage of people in cities

  • Urbanization of MDCs has mostly ended

  • Cannot increase much more

  • Nearly everyone interested in urban areas have already migrated

Increasing percentage of people in cities4
Increasing percentage of people in cities

  • Percentage is increasing in LDCs

  • Migration looking for jobs in manufacturing/services

  • Pushed off farms b/c lack of opportunities

Increasing number of people in cities
Increasing number of people in cities

  • MDCs have higher percentage of urban residents

  • LDCs have more very large urban settlements

  • (most populous cities are in LDCs)

  • In 1900, most populous cities were due to industrialization

  • Today, migration & NIR is responsible for rapid growth of cities in LDCs

Large cities
Large Cities

Fig. 13-2: Cities with 3 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.

Percent urban by region
Percent Urban by Region

Fig. 13-2b: Over 70% of people in MDCs live in urban areas. Although under half of the people in most of Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are urban, Latin America and the Middle East have urban percentages comparable to MDCs.

Defining urban settlements
Defining Urban Settlements

  • Can be difficult to delineate boundaries between urban and rural

  • Social Differences between Urban & Rural Settlements

    • Large Size: you don’t know most people in city

    • High Density: specialization of jobs

    • Social Heterogeneity: large variety of people

Physicial definitions of urban settlemetns
Physicial Definitions of urban settlemetns

  • Past: easy to define because walls around cities

  • Legal definition: legally incorporated into an independent self-governing unit (boundaries, elected officials, taxes)

  • Urbanized Area: central city & sububrbs

  • Metropolitan Statistical Area: an area that extends beyond city & suburbs. For example: surrounding counties

Metropolitan statistical area
Metropolitan Statistical Area

  • Urbanized area with population of +50,000

  • County within which city is located

  • Adjacent counties with large percentage of residents working in central city’s county

  • Micropolitan Statistical Areas: smaller urban areas of 10,000-50,000 inhabitants

Overlapping metropolitan areas
Overlapping Metropolitan Areas


  • A county between two central cities

  • Extends between Boston to DC

  • US Census combined Baltimore & DC into 1 area, but then re-divided them because of distinct characteristics


Fig. 13-4: The Boston-Washington corridor extends over 700 km and contains about one-quarter of U.S. population.

Key issue 2
Key Issue 2

  • Where are people distributed within Urban Areas?

  • Three models of urban structure

    • Concentric zone model

    • Sector model

    • Multiple nuclei model

    • Geographic applications

  • Use of the models outside North America

    • European cities

    • Less developed countries

Urban structure
Urban Structure

  • Three Models of Urban Structure

  • Explain where diff types of people tend to live in urban area

  • Developed in Chicago

Concentric zone model
Concentric Zone Model

  • Burgess Model: important to remember this name

  • A city grows outward from a central area in concentric rings, like tree growth

  • Size of rings vary

  • Inner Ring: CBD (non-residential)

  • Second Ring: industry & poor housing (immigrants)

  • Third Ring: working class

  • Fourth Zone: newer, spacious houses, middle class

  • Fifth zone: commuter zone

Concentric zone model1
Concentric Zone Model

Fig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.

Sector model
Sector Model

  • Hoyt’s Model of urban structure, 1939

  • Cities develop in a series of sectors, not rings

  • Certain areas are more attractive for certain purposes

  • City expands in wedges

  • Hoyt & Burgess believe their model fits Chicago

  • Hoyt argues that sector is proven by Lake Michigan providing most desired housing area

Sector model1
Sector Model

Fig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.

Multiple nuclei model
Multiple Nuclei Model

  • Harris & Ullman, 1945

  • City is a complex structure that includes more than one center

  • Ex: port, business center, university, airport, etc

  • Some activities attracted to certain regions

  • Airport attracts hotels, University attracts residents, book stores

Multiple nuclei model1
Multiple Nuclei Model

Fig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.

Geographic applications of the 3 models
Geographic Applications of the 3 models

  • Help us understand who lives where & why

  • Need data for models

  • Census, every 10yrs

  • Urban areas in US divided into census tracts: 5,000 residents & match neighborhood boundaries

  • Census Bureau summarizes characteristics of each tract

  • Critics argue models are too simplistic

  • Based on conditions that existed between world wars

Social area analysis
Social Area Analysis

  • Spatial distribution of social characteristics are plotted onto a map

  • Allows people to identify where people are most likely to live

  • Concentric Model (Burgess) home-owner likely lives in an outer ring, a renter in an inner ring

  • Sector Theory: higher income home-owner will not live in same sector as lower income home-owner

  • Multiple Nuclei Theory: people of same ethnic background likely to live near each other

Indianapolis percent renters
Indianapolis: Percent Renters

Fig. 13-8: The distribution of household renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model.

Indianapolis household income
Indianapolis: Household Income

Fig. 13-9: The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis illustrates the sector model.

Indianapolis ethnic patterns
Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns

Fig. 13-10: The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple nuclei model.

Use of the models outside north america
Use of the Models outside North America

  • American urban areas differ from elsewhere in the world

  • Social groups in other countries have different reasons for selecting neighborhoods

European cities
European Cities

  • Wealthier people in Euro cities cluster along sector extending from CBD (similar to US)

  • Wealthy cluster in particular areas for various reason

  • Factories, etc cluster in different areas

  • Wealthy Euro still live in inner rings, not just suburbs like US

    • Close to shops, restaurants, cafes, etc

    • Restored historic buildings

European cities1
European Cities

  • Europeans in cities don’t have private yards

  • Have summer/weekend homes in country

  • Low-income families not likely to live in inner-city

  • Poor quality housing has been resotred for wealthy

  • Low-income live in outskirts

  • Suburbs-crime, violence, drugs

  • European officials encourage high density suburbs instead of urban sprawl like US

Social areas in paris
Social Areas in Paris

Fig. 13-11: Higher income professionals are likely to live in the center of Paris, while factory workers tend to live in the suburbs, in contrast to the pattern of many American cities.

African immigrants in paris
African Immigrants in Paris

West African immigrants being removed from an apartment building in suburban Paris where they are accused of being squatters.

Less developed countries
Less Developed Countries

  • Wealthy live in center of cities

  • poor live in suburbs

  • Past European colonial policies leave mark on development of cities

  • 3 stages in LDCs

    • Pre-colonial

    • European colonial period

    • Since independence

Pre colonial cities
Pre-colonial Cities

  • Before Europeans, few cities existed in Africa, Asia & Latin America

  • Most lived in rural settlements

  • Cities formed around religious core

    • Mosque, cathedral, temple

    • Market place

    • Government buildings

Colonial cities
Colonial Cities

  • Europeans expanded existing cities in Africa, Asia, Latin America

  • Colonial services: admin, military, trade

  • Housing for colonists

  • Native towns often destroyed

  • Fes, Morocco: 2 distinct towns: French built their new, colonial city beside old city

  • Delhi vs New Delhi, India

  • Saigon (HoChiMinh City), Vietnam: French destroyed existing city

Mexico city
Mexico City

Fig. 13-12: The Aztec city of Tenochtitlán was built on an island in Lake Texcoco. Today poorer people live on a landfill in the former lakebed, and the elite live to the west.

Mexico city oct 2006
Mexico City, Oct. 2006

The Zócalo in downtown Mexico City on Oct. 22, 2006 with 13,000 simultaneous games of chess in order to set a record.

F s fez morocco
Fès (Fez), Morocco

Fig. 13-13: The old city in the east has narrow winding streets and dense population. The French laid out a new district to the west with a geometric street pattern.

Ho chi minh city vietnam
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Fig. 13-14: In Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), the French demolished the previous city and replaced it with a colonial design with boulevards and public squares.

Colonial cities1
Colonial Cities

  • European districts in LDCs

    • Wider streets

    • public squares

    • Larger houses surrounded by gardens

    • Lower density

  • Spanish cities in Latin America built by laws drafted in 1573

    • Street plan, centered around church, plaza, walls around houses, neighborhoods built around a smaller plaza

Latin american city model
Latin American City Model

Fig. 13-15: In many Latin American cities, the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector extending along a commercial spine.

Cities since independence
Cities Since Independence

  • LDCs: Millions have migrated to cities to search for work

  • Latin American cities

  • Wealthy push out in wedge from center of city

  • Water & electricity more available

Rio de janeiro brazil
Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

  • High incomes clustered in center & south of city

  • Low income in north

  • Coincides with access to services: electricity & city sewers

  • Wealthy also situate near scenic views & access to beach

Rio de janeiro brazil high low income regions
Rio de Janeiro, BrazilHigh & Low Income Regions

Fig. 13-16a: High income households in Rio de Janeiro live in the CBD and in a spine along the ocean. Low-income households often live in peripheral areas.

Rio de janeiro areas with sewers
Rio de JaneiroAreas with Sewers

Fig. 13-16b: High income households are attracted to central areas of Rio partly because these areas have access to services such as sewers.

Squatter settlements
Squatter Settlements

  • LCS are unable to house growing number of poor people in cities

    • Population increase & migration

  • Squatter Settlements: areas outside of cities where poor people settle. (favelas in Brazil)

  • Few services available:

    • Water

    • Sewer

    • Electricity

    • Schools

Favela in rio de janeiro
Favela in Rio de Janeiro

Many poor immigrants live in squatter settlements, or favelas, many of which are on the hillsides around Rio.

Squatter settlements1
Squatter Settlements

  • Camp on land, sleep on street

  • Create primate shelters with cardboard

  • Build up their shacks with misc materials

  • To improve conditions:

    • 1) move illegally into vacant housing

    • 2)rent slum housing from landlord

  • 33% in Sao Paulo, Brazil

  • 85% Addis Ababa, Ethiopia