How did Chemistry Become a Science? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_chemistry
Alchemy vs. Chemistry The Alchemist The Alchemist’s Dream Zinc Pennies Alchemy vs. Chemistry Pure Science Applied Science Aluminum Mining Corning Glass Fertilizers (5-15-10) Areas of Chemistry Stereotypes of Chemists A Career in Chemistry Forensic Scientist The Scope of Chemistry Starting Salaries
The Alchemist Frankly, I’d be satisfied if I could turn gold into lead!
The Alchemist’s Dream COPPER “SILVER” “GOLD” Zinc coated Brass = Copper + Zinc Penny into Gold - Alchemist Dream
Zinc Pennies Before 1982, all pennies were solid copper (except 1943). Copper was used to make bullet shells in WW II. By 1943, the supply of copper metal was in short supply. The US government did not want to ‘waste’ copper on making pennies. Pennies were made with steel metal. They looked silver. A shortage of copper drove the price of copper up in the early 1980s. If melted down, the copper could be sold for more than one cent. After 1982, pennies were made from zinc. A thin coating of copper was pressed on the zinc.
Democrat vs. Republican Alike Different Different politicians right left Topic Topic Democrat Republican liberal conservative un ethical support big business support 'little man' ?
Alchemy vs. Chemistry Alike Different Different Topic Topic Chemistry Alchemy
“I think you’ve crossed that thin line between transmuting and cooking.”
Paracelsus Man consisted of three elements SALT represented the body SULFUR the soul MERCURY the spirit He thought he could rearrange the amounts of the elements to change man. He desired immortality and searched for a mystical elixir of life.
~ ~ D D ___ ___ The Beginnings early practical chemistry: household goods, weapons, soap, wine, basic medicine The Greeks believed there were four elements. D earth air fire water
ALCHEMY Timeline Greeks (Democratus ~450 BC) Discontinuous theory of matter Issac Newton (1642 - 1727) 400 BC 300 AD 1000 2000 Greeks (Aristotle ~350 BC)) Continuous theory of matter American Independence (1776)
Alchemy In Europe, alchemy was Allegedly, this substance would turn cheap metals into gold. the quest for the Philosopher’s Stone (the elixir, the Sorcerer’s Stone).
Philosopher’s Stone COPPER GOLD changing one substance into another transmutation In ordinary chemical reactions, we cannot transmute elements into different elements.
Early Ideas on Elements Robert Boyle stated... • A substance was an element unless it could be broken down to two or more simpler substances. • Air therefore could not be an element because it could be broken down in to many pure substances. Robert Boyle
Alchemy • After that 'chemistry' was ruled by alchemy. • They believed that that could take any cheap metals and turn them into gold. • Alchemists were almost like magicians. • elixirs, physical immortality
Alchemy Symbols Alchemy Symbols
GOLD SILVER COPPER IRON SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alchemy Alchemical symbols for substances… transmutation: changing one substance into another D In ordinary chemistry, we cannot transmute elements.
GOLD SILVER COPPER IRON SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alchemy (~500 – 1300 A.D.) the quest for the Philosopher’s Stone It was supposed to change cheap metals into gold. The Alchemist, by David Teniers Alchemical symbols for substances… transmutation: changing one substance into another In ordinary chemistry, we cannot transmute elements. Contributions of alchemists: lab apparatus / procedures how to make some alloys properties of some elements
Alchemy was practiced in many regions of the world, including China and the Middle East. Alchemy arrived in western Europe around the year 500 C.E. Modern chemistry evolved from alchemy.
Contributions of alchemists: • Information about elements • - the elements mercury, sulfur, and antimony were discovered • - properties of some elements • Develop lab apparatus / procedures / experimental techniques • - alchemists learned how to prepare acids. • - developed several alloys • - new glassware