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Gibbons, Michael / Camille Limoges / Helga Nowotny / Simon Schwartzman / Peter Scott / Martin Trow (1994) [ authored, no - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Gibbons, Michael / Camille Limoges / Helga Nowotny / Simon Schwartzman / Peter Scott / Martin Trow (1994) [ authored, not edited ]. The New Production of Knowledge. The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage. Book Cover. Bibliographic Information.

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Gibbons, Michael / Camille Limoges / Helga Nowotny / Simon Schwartzman / Peter Scott / Martin Trow (1994) [authored, not edited]

The New Production of Knowledge. The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage.

bibliographic information
Bibliographic Information
  • The book has an interesting story of production;
  • Book was (is) highly influential in Europe (less so in the U.S.);
  • 2001 a new book (“Re-Thinking Science”) and 2003 the Minerva article:
    • Nowotny, Helga / Peter Scott / Michael Gibbons (2001). Re-thinking science. Knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    • Nowotny, Helga / Peter Scott / Michael Gibbons (2003). Mode 2 Revisited: The New Production of Knowledge. Minerva 41, 179-194.
mode 1 traditional
Mode 1: “Traditional”
  • Traditional way of knowledge production captured by the concept and phrase of “Mode 1”;
  • “… Mode 1, generated within a disciplinary, primarily cognitive, context …” (p. 1)
  • “… Mode 1 problems are set and solved in a context governed by the, largely academic, interests of a specific community. … Mode 1 is hierarchical and tends to preserve its form … “ (p. 3)
five principles of mode 2
Five Principles of “Mode 2”
  • Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application;
  • Transdisciplinarity;
  • Heterogeneity and Organizational Diversity;
  • Social Accountability and Reflexivity;
  • Quality Control.
relationship mode 2 mode 1
Relationship: Mode 2 / Mode 1
  • A parallel existence of Mode 2 and Mode 1;
  • Mode 2 developed out of Mode 1;
  • Importance of communication for Mode 2;
  • Mode 2 demands participation in knowledge production;
  • Mode 2 has co-evolutionary effects.
prerequisites for mode 2 1
Prerequisites for Mode 2 (1)
  • New technologies such as rapid transportation and ICTs enabled (enable) many different sites to interact and communicate;
  • The crucial importance of communication and communication density;
  • Communication expansion also leads to a greater diversity of knowledge;
prerequisites for mode 2 2
Prerequisites for Mode 2 (2)
  • Communication increase is partially a positive pay-off of past (partially, but not only, public) investments into knowledge infrastructure;
  • The massification of higher education;
  • Increased levels of communication and broader applications of technology;
  • Proliferation (diffusion) of sites with knowledge competences;
  • This knowledge surplus supports the emergence of Mode 2;
prerequisites for mode 2 3
Prerequisites for Mode 2 (3)
  • The importance of knowledge for dynamic markets.
homogenous heterogeneous growth 1
Homogenous/Heterogeneous Growth (1)
  • Definition of homogenous growth:
  • “… homogenous growth would be the expansion of a given entity, say papers in nuclear physics, where the growth often follows a logarithmic curve. In this case, growth essentially consists of the production of more of the same, whether these are numbers of papers produced or number of scientists working in a given field” (p. 34)
homogenous heterogeneous growth 2
Homogenous/Heterogeneous Growth (2)
  • Definition of heterogeneous growth:
  • “Heterogeneous growth, by contrast refers to a process of differentiation through which rearrangements of component elements take place within a given process of set of activities. In these cases it is the number of rearrangements that grow rather than solely the number of outputs” (p. 34)
  • “In Mode 2, not only are more actors involved in the genesis of knowledge but they remain socially distributed” (p. 34)
homogenous heterogeneous growth 3
Homogenous/Heterogeneous Growth (3)
  • Example for homogeneous growth: e.g., more article output (article production).
homogenous heterogeneous growth 4
Homogenous/Heterogeneous Growth (4)
  • Example for heterogeneous growth:
  • E.g., taking article production into account, other information (indicators) are considered, such as: the number of authors per article and their background; the diversity of institutions involved; do these institutions cover different “sectors” and also different countries;
homogenous heterogeneous growth 5
Homogenous/Heterogeneous Growth (5)
  • There is the claim that such a networking diversity often fosters new insights;
  • A possibility of verification or testing of that hypothesis could be to look at the citation frequency of articles (in the same discipline of field) and to search for patterns: Are articles, with a diversity background of authors and institutions, more frequently cited?;
  • This could imply not only assessing the article output (of a person or institutions), but also carefully to observe citation frequencies.
first principle knowledge produced in the context of application 1
First Principle: Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application (1)
  • A general sensitivity for contexts and a challenging of more traditional forms of knowledge production;
  • Problem solving often is related to a specific application:
  • “… problem solving which is organised around a particular application” (p. 3)
first principle knowledge produced in the context of application 2
First Principle: Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application (2)
  • A wide range of considerations and continuous negotiations (thus the importance of communication) are highly important for Mode 2;
  • Diverse supply and demand factors and the societal distribution of knowledge:
  • “Knowledge production becomes diffused throughout society. This is why we also speak of socially distributed knowledge” (p. 4)
first principle knowledge produced in the context of application 3
First Principle: Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application (3)
  • Mode 2 demands participation in the knowledge production:
  • “It is one of the imperatives of Mode 2 that exploitation of knowledge requires participation in its generation” (p. 14);
  • Analytically/conceptually speaking the two terms “in the context of application” and “applied science” are not completely identical, but partially overlapping (the OECD uses the terms basic research, applied research and experimental development);
first principle knowledge produced in the context of application 4
First Principle: Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application (4)
  • Application supports further development of theories;
  • Conceptually, in Mode 2, the two terms “discovery” and “application” lie very closely together and also overlap (through application your scientific discoveries are being tested):
  • “Currently [in Mode 1] conventional wisdom is that discovery must precede application. … When knowledge is actually produced in the context of application, it is not applied science, because discovery and applications cannot be separated, the relevant science being produced in the very course of providing solutions to the problems defined in the context of application” (p. 33-34)
  • “In this, the product and the process by which materials are made become integrated in the design process, implying a closer integration in the process of discovery with that of fabrication” (p. 19)
first principle knowledge produced in the context of application 5
First Principle: Knowledge Produced in the Context of Application (5)
  • A clear-cut distinction between science and technology becomes increasingly difficult (many overlapping conceptual characteristics);
  • The importance of application for innovation;
  • Brokering roles of governments for the competitiveness of the innovation system (patterns of cooperation and competition between/among knowledge producers);
first principle context of application codified tacit knowledge 6
First Principle: Context of Application, Codified / Tacit Knowledge (6)
  • Definition of codified knowledge:
  • “Knowledge which needs not be exclusively theoretical but needs to be systematic enough to be written down and stored. As such, it is available to anyone who knows where to look” (p. 167)
first principle context of application codified tacit knowledge 7
First Principle: Context of Application, Codified / Tacit Knowledge (7)
  • Definition of tacit knowledge:
  • “Tacit knowledge, by contrast, is not available as a text and may conventionally be regarded as residing in the heads of those working on a particular transformation process, or to be embedded in a particular organizational context” (p. 24);
  • “Knowledge not available as a text and which may conventionally be regarded as residing in the heads of those working in a particular transformation process, or to be embedded in a particular organizational context” (p. 168)
first principle context of application codified tacit knowledge 8
First Principle: Context of Application, Codified / Tacit Knowledge (8)
  • Functional characteristics of codified knowledge: migratory and mobile;
  • Functional characteristic of tacit knowledge: embedded (and less mobile);
  • Hypothesis/question: Is for technological knowledge the tacit component larger or more crucial?;
  • Firms/companies focus on commercial applications;
first principle context of application codified tacit knowledge 9
First Principle: Context of Application, Codified / Tacit Knowledge (9)
  • The knowledge base of companies/firms:
  • “… a firm … employs individuals who are “practitioniers” from a number of communities, be they scientific, technological or managerial. The job of the management is to configure the competence of individuals into a distinct, firm-specific knowledge base which will form the core of its capability to compete in national and international markets” (p. 25);
  • Firm employees belong to wider communities;
  • Firms have codified and tacit knowledge;
  • The tacit knowledge component is highly important for the competitiveness of a firm.
first principle context of application academic business convergence 10
First Principle: Context of Application, Academic/Business Convergence (10)
  • The importance of tacit knowledge brings academia and business culturally closer together;
  • Universities can adopt some values from business:
  • “For example, universities can adopt “values” from the corporate culture of industry, bringing forth an entirely new type of academic entrepreneur” (p. 37);
first principle context of application academic business convergence 11
First Principle: Context of Application, Academic/Business Convergence (11)
  • And companies can take over some academic values:
  • “Conversely, big firms adopt some of the norms of academic culture, for example when they give employees sabbaticals or provide other forms of training possibilities” (p. 37).
second principle transdisciplinarity 1
Second Principle: Transdisciplinarity (1)
  • Definition of transdisciplinarity:
  • “Knowledge which emerges from a particular context of application with its own distinct theoretical structures, research methods and modes of practice but which may not be locatable on the prevailing disciplinary map” (p. 168);
  • “In the process of transdisciplinary knowledge … [integration] is not provided by disciplinary structures … but is envisaged and provided from the outset in the context of usage, or application in the broad sense specifies earlier” (p. 27).
second principle transdisciplinarity 2
Second Principle: Transdisciplinarity (2)
  • Based on previous work of Erich Jantsch the following typologies – with regard to disciplines – can be developed: Pluri/multidisciplinarity; Interdisciplinarity; Transdisciplinarity;
  • The focus of transdiscipinarity is on problem-solving and not on establishing a “new” or “transdisciplinary” discipline;
second principle transdisciplinarity 3
Second Principle: Transdisciplinarity (3)
  • Transdisciplinarity has four distinct features:
  • (1) evolving framework for problem-solving;
  • (2) a contribution to knowledge;
  • (3) access and diffusion of knowledge results demands participation in the process of their production;
  • (4) transdisciplinarity is dynamic:
  • “It is problem solving capability on the move” (p. 5);
second principle transdisciplinarity 4
Second Principle: Transdisciplinarity (4)
  • Transdisciplinarity enables other, alternative career patterns.
third principle heterogeneity and organizational diversity 1
Third Principle: Heterogeneity and Organizational Diversity (1)
  • There are three crucial features for heterogeneity and organizational diversity:
  • (1) increase of knowledge producing sites;
  • (2) linkage of sites “through functioning networks of communication” (p. 6);
  • (3) recombination and reconfiguration of “subfields” at these different sites;
third principle heterogeneity and organizational diversity 2
Third Principle: Heterogeneity and Organizational Diversity (2)
  • The importance of networks for heterogeneity and organizational diversity;
  • The development of hybrid institutions and communities;
  • Hybrid foras and the definition of a hybrid forum:
  • “The meeting point of a range of diverse actors, frequently in public controversies. Hybrid foras can act as new markets for knowledge and expertise” (p. 167).
fourth principle social accountability and reflexivity 1
Fourth Principle: Social Accountability and Reflexivity (1)
  • A greater sensitivity for the impact of knowledge production on society;
  • An explicit reflection of the values of the individuals/groups who are involved in the knowledge production.
fifth principle quality control 1
Fifth Principle: Quality Control (1)
  • The peer review process as primary quality control in Mode 1;
  • A broader range of quality control in Mode 2;
  • Examples for quality control in Mode 2:
  • “Will the solution, if found, be competitive in the market?” (p. 8);
  • “Will it be cost effective” (p. 8);
  • “Will it be socially acceptable?” (p. 8);
fifth principle quality control 2
Fifth Principle: Quality Control (2)
  • The dependence of quality control on institutional space:
  • In Mode 1: “In Mode 1, control is exercised by different types of knowledge producing institutions… Such institutions include, for example, universities, national academies and the professional societies” (pp. 32-33);
  • In Mode 2: “Because knowledge production in Mode 2 occurs within transient contexts of application it is unlikely that the communities of practitioners who exercise quality control will be backed up by relatively stable institutions such as one finds in Mode 1. …knowledge producers with many different institutional affiliations, either simultaneously or sequentially” (p. 33);
fifth principle quality control 3
Fifth Principle: Quality Control (3)
  • Success definition in Mode 1 – academic excellency:
  • “Success in Mode 1 might perhaps be summarily described as excellence defined by disciplinary peers” (p. 33);
  • Success definition in Mode 2 – efficiency or usefulness:
  • “In Mode 2 success would have to include the additional criteria such as efficiency or usefulness, defined in terms of the contribution the work has made to the overall solution of transdisciplinary problems” (p. 33).
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 1
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2 (1)
  • The search for “first principles” (in Mode 1) is complemented in Mode 2 by a general interest in “specific, ordered structures”:
  • “… researchers do not concern themselves with the basic principles of the world but with specific ordered structures within it” (p. 24);
  • “The recovery of interest in specific, ordered structures… “ (pp. 43-44);
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 2
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2 (2)
  • The importance of design for knowledge – designing as one form of knowledge production (Can the artificial be separated from the real world?): referring to the earlier linkages of “discovery”, “application” and “fabrication”:
  • “Knowledge through design… Instead of purifying natural substances or resorting to complex reactions to obtain those with the desired properties, the required materials can now be built up atom by atom, or molecule by molecule, by design… “ (pp. 44-45);
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 3
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2 (3)
  • Complementing (partially replacing) “experiments” by “simulation”:
  • “The experimental process with its underlying trial and error approach in the empirical world, is increasingly complemented, if not in part replaced, by new computational methods of simulation and dynamic imaging” (p. 45).
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 three tiered system of communication 4
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2: Three-Tiered System of Communication (4)
  • (1) Communication between Science and Society:
  • (a) Traditional way of communication:
  • “Traditionally, communication between science and society was essentially one-way; scientists were the holders of privileged expert knowledge, while the lay public was to be enlightened and educated” (p. 36);
  • (b) New societal demands on science:
  • “Enhanced social accountability, particularly evident in the last few decades, arose as a better educated citizenry placed new demands on science” (p. 36);
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 three tiered system of communication 5
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2: Three-Tiered System of Communication (5)
  • (c) Current two-way communication:
  • “Thus, communication between research and society increasingly takes the form of diffusion processes that carry scientific and technological knowledge into society while norms and expectations held by different institutions and communities are brought home more forcefully to the research communities” (p. 38);
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 three tiered system of communication 6
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2: Three-Tiered System of Communication (6)
  • (2) Communication among Scientific Practitioners:
  • “Communication among scientists is influenced by two factors: one is their mobility, while the second relates to how they set priorities and select problems” (p. 38);
other characteristics of the knowledge production of mode 2 three tiered system of communication 7
Other Characteristics of the Knowledge Production of Mode 2: Three-Tiered System of Communication (7)
  • (3) Communication with the Entities of the Physical and Social World:
  • “The more sophisticated and complex society becomes, the more dense will be the content and form of dialogue with nature” (p. 42).
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