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NEURONS & NEURAL TRANSMISSION NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG ACTION. Nervous System Divisions. CNS (central nervous system) Brain, Spinal Cord 12 pairs of cranial nerves (originate from cranium) PNS (peripheral nervous system) Somatic nervous system 31 pairs of spinal nerves

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nervous system divisions
Nervous System Divisions
  • CNS (central nervous system)
    • Brain, Spinal Cord
    • 12 pairs of cranial nerves (originate from cranium)
  • PNS (peripheral nervous system)
    • Somatic nervous system
      • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
    • Autonomic nervous system
neuron membrane
NEURON MEMBRANE
  • Membrane Structure
    • Semipermeable lipid bilayer
    • Proteins
      • Ion channels
      • Transport pumps
      • Receptors
neuronal communication
NEURONAL COMMUNICATION
  • POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS
    • Excitatory PSP
    • Inhibitory PSP
neurochemical synapse
NEUROCHEMICAL SYNAPSE
  • Presynaptic Membrane
  • Postsynaptic Membrane
  • Synaptic Vesicles
  • Synaptic Cleft
  • Receptor Sites
synaptic transmission
SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
  • Synthesis
  • Storage
  • Neurotransmitter Release
  • Receptor Activation
  • Neurotransmitter Deactivation
    • Enzymatic Deactivation (Metabolism)
    • Reuptake
neurotransmitter families
NEUROTRANSMITTER FAMILIES
  • Acetylcholine
  • Monoamines
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
  • Amino Acid Transmitters
    • Glutamate
    • GABA
    • Histamine
    • Glycine
  • Neuropeptides
    • Enkephalins
    • Endorphins
receptor subtypes for neurotransmitters
Receptor Subtypes for Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine: nicotinic, muscarinic
  • Dopamine: D1, D2, D3, D4, D5
  • Norepinephrine: alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2
  • Serotonin: 5-HT1a,1b,1c,1d; 5-HT2a,2b,2c;; 5-HT3…
  • GABA: GABAA, GABAB
  • Glutamate: NMDA, AMPA, mGluR
  • Endorphins: mu, kappa, delta
receptor activation
RECEPTOR ACTIVATION
  • Ligand-gated ion channels
  • Ionotropic Receptors
  • Metabotropic Receptors
    • G proteins
    • Second Messengers
drug actions on receptor activation
DRUG ACTIONS ON RECEPTOR ACTIVATION
  • Agonists
    • Competitive
    • Noncompetitive
  • Antagonists
    • Competitive
    • Noncompetitive
psychoactive drug classes
Psychoactive Drug Classes
  • CNS stimulants
    • amphetamine, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine
  • CNS depressants
    • alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB
  • Hallucinogens
    • LSD, PCP, mescaline, MDMA(?)
  • Narcotics (Opioids)
    • morphine, methadone
  • Antipsychotics
    • chlorpromazine, haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone
  • Antidepressants
    • SSRIs (e.g., Prozac, Paxil), MAOIs, tricyclics
pharmacology of psychoactive drugs
Pharmacology of Psychoactive Drugs
  • Drugs with cholinergic actions
    • curare (nicotinic antagonist)
    • atropine (muscarinic antagonist)
    • nicotine (nicotinic mixed agonist/antagonist)
  • Nonselective monoamine agonists
    • reserpine
    • MAO inhibitors (e.g., deprenyl)
    • tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine)
    • CNS stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine)
pharmacology of psychoactive drugs1
Pharmacology of Psychoactive Drugs
  • Other dopaminergic drugs
    • antipsychotics (haloperidol, chlorpromazine)
    • antiparkinson agents (L-DOPA, bromocriptine)
  • Serotonergic drugs
    • SSRIs -- (Prozac, Paxil)
    • LSD
  • GABAergic drugs
    • benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax)
    • alcohol
    • bicuculline (convulsant)