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Adolescence. Chapter 11. Physical Development. From Child to Adult: Use to be very brief & was marked by elaborate ceremony Today education extended, status/duties adulthood extended, so adolescence coverers teen years to a bit beyond 3 categories, early 11-14, middle 15-18, late 18-21

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Chapter 11

physical development
Physical Development
  • From Child to Adult:
    • Use to be very brief & was marked by elaborate ceremony
    • Today education extended, status/duties adulthood extended, so adolescence coverers teen years to a bit beyond
    • 3 categories, early 11-14, middle 15-18, late 18-21
    • Biological changes greater than any other period in life, except infancy, but aware of them, causes confusion, worry, anxiety
  • Growth Spurt: stable growth pattern comes to an end, usually growth spurt is 2-3 years, usually grow 8-12 inches
    • Girls: earlier than boys, 10 or 11 begins, taller & heavier than boys for a few years
    • Boys: 2 year later than boys, middle adolescence catch up and grow taller
    • Awkward Age: sudden adolescent growth can be awkward for both sexes b/c different parts grow and mature differently, “just don’t look right”
      • Tend to be well coordinated but don’t feel like it, will reach correct proportions with time
      • Must eat enough right foods, calcium & iron VIP
physical development1
Physical Development
  • Sexual Development:
    • Adolescence begins with Puberty: specific developmental changes that lead to ability to reproduce, usually ends when physical growth does
    • Primary Sex Characteristics: directly involved in reproduction
    • Secondary Sex Characteristic: not directly involved in reproduction
    • Changes in Males: hormones in pituitary gland cause increase of testosterone from testes
      • Sex organs grow, voice deepens, body hair, broader shoulders, thicker bodies, more muscle tissue, larger hearts & lungs
    • Changes in Females: hormones from pituitary gland cause increase in estrogen from ovaries
      • Breast tissue, hips & butt, androgens stimulate hair growth & grow sex organs, begin menstrual cycle (menarche: 1st period, around 11-14)
    • Differences in Rates:
      • Boys who mature earlier tend to be more popular, size & strength give competitive edge in sports, more self-assured, relaxed, higher self-esteem, more pressure to perform at higher levels, advantage fades over time
      • Boys mature later more well-adjusted as adults
      • Girls mature earlier feel more awkward b/c of height, teased about changes, once others change issues go away
social development
Social Development
  • Storm & Stress:
    • Conflicts & distress experienced
    • Hormonal Changes effect activity, mood swings, aggressive tendencies, but cultural & social influences have more effect than hormones
    • Adolescence: psychological concept as well, take on adult responsibilities, how long varies by person, difficulties at home can lead to other issues, form new friendships, increase knowledge, build self-awareness, develop personal & social skills, become successful & competent humans
  • Relationships with Parents! 
    • Traditionally show child rebelling, parents at wit's end, many exaggerated, many changes are positive
    • Quest for independence: wanting freedom can cause conflict, results in bickering
      • Common: homework, chores, money, appearance, curfews, dating
      • Personal choices should be made by them not parents
      • Less family time, greater emotional attachment to non-family members, more activities outside of home
      • Older you get less time with family
social development1
Social Development
    • Lasting Bond: doesn’t mean child totally withdraws
      • Still love, respect, feel loyalty to parents
      • Those feel closest to parents show greater self-reliance and independence
      • Those who retain close ties with parents do better in school & have fewer adjustment problems
      • Typically share similar social, political, religious, economic views
      • Tend to interact with mothers more than fathers b/c see as more supportive, knowing them better, more likely to tolerate opinions, more likely to seek and follow advice
  • Relationships w/ Peers: increase in importance of peers of influence & emotional support
    • Adolescent Friendships: tend to have 1 or 2 best friends, but other good friends as well
      • Several hours a day with friends, talk or texting when not with them
      • Loyalty key aspect, stick up for you, won’t talk about you behind your back, provide support & understanding
      • Tend to be similar in age, background, educational goals, attitudes toward drinking, drug use, sexual activity, usually same sex
      • Girls closer friends than boys, share more secrets, personal problems, innermost feelings
      • Boys tend to spend more time in large, less intimate groups
      • Differences continue into adulthood
social development2
Social Development
  • Cliques & Crowds: tend to belong to 1 or more larger peer groups
    • Clique: peer group of 5-10 people who spend a great deal of time with one another, sharing activities & confidences
    • Crowds: larger groups who do not spend as much time together but share attitudes & group identity
    • Often include members of both sexes, many date inside the clique and/or crowd and participate in activities with those
    • Some join cliques in search of stability & belonging, imitate peer speech, adopt values, follow similar fads, may become intolerant of outsiders
  • Peer Influence: Parents fear peers will engage in risky/unacceptable behavior for per approval
    • Typically peers more likely to urge adolescents to work for good grades, and compete in high school than involve in drug abuse, sexual activity, delinquency
    • More likely to follow peers dress, hairstyle, speech pattern, taste in music
    • Follow parents more on moral values, education, career goals
    • Peer Pressure: weak in early adolescence, increases middle adolescence, peaking age 15 (freshmen?), decreases after age 17 (seniors )
    • Strongly influenced by peers b/c seek approval to feel better about themselves, standards to measure their behavior against as become independent, share same feelings & provide support
social development3
Social Development
  • Dating & Romantic Relationships: usually begins in adolescence
    • Meet peers of opposite sex, then group dating, then pair off for traditional dating
    • Enjoy spending time with someone they like, help learn how to relate positively to others, prepare for courtship activities to come later
    • Younger tend to be casual & short lived, later stable & committed
identity formation
Identity Formation
  • Identity Development:
    • Erik Erikson, journey of life has 8 stages, must master the task at each for healthy development to continue
      • Young children must deal with issues of trust, autonomy, and initiative
      • School age must develop competence, can learn & achieve
      • Adolescent must search for identity: who you are and what you stand for
        • Seek to identify beliefs, values, life goals, need to identify areas they agree & disagree with parents, teachers, friends
        • Erikson said accomplished by choosing & developing a commitment to particular role or occupation in life & developing political & religious beliefs
        • May experiment with different values, beliefs, roles, relationships, try out different “selves” in different situations or at different times
        • Identity is achieved when different selves are brought together in unified sense of self
        • Erikson said teens who don’t forge an identity become confused about who they are and what they want to do in life, difficulty making commitments, drift from situation to situation, become overly dependent on opinions of others
        • Identity Crisis: turning point in person’s development when person examines his/her values and makes or changes decisions about life roles, can feel overwhelmed by choices they must make
    • Piaget: formal-operational stage begins at puberty & continues through adulthood, abstract thinking & hypothetical situations
      • Find reasonable solutions to problems & predict possible consequences
      • Helps make important life choices
identity formation1
Identity Formation
  • Identity Status: reaction patterns and processes
    • James Marcia: identity crisis arises when teens face decisions about their future work, moral standards, religious commitment, political orientation, sexual orientation
      • Studied different ways to handle commitment & cope with identify crisis
      • 4 categories of id status, do not remain in an pattern throughout adolescence and don’t go through them in a set order, move in and out in various categories
        • Identity Moratorium: “time out” period, delay making commitments about important questions
          • Explore various alternatives attempting to forge id
          • Experiment with different behaviors, personalities, ways of life, distinctive forms of dress or behaving
          • Those who stay there longer may become anxious b/c don’t know where their journey ends, just go in general direction
        • Identity Foreclosure: to avoid id crisis this category makes a commitment that forecloses other possibilities
          • Make a definite commitment, but it is based on suggestions of others not their own choices
          • Adopt a belief system or plan of action w/o closely examining whether right or wrong for them
          • Follow model set by parents, peers, teachers, authority figures to avoid uncertainty
          • Some foreclose early and may be dissatisfied later in life
identity formation2
Identity formation
  • Identity Diffusion: constantly searching for meaning in life and for id b/c they have not committed themselves to a set of personal beliefs or an occupational path, lack goals or interests, live crisis to crisis
    • Middle school & early high school
    • If continues to 11-12th grade can lead to “I don’t care” attitude, anger or rebellion
  • Identity Achievement: coped with crises and explored options, committed themselves to occupational directions, made decisions about important life questions
    • Experienced id crisis but emerged from it with solid beliefs or plan
    • Have feeling of well-being, self-esteem, acceptance
    • Capable of setting goals & working toward attaining them
    • Usually after high school, normal to change college majors even several times
    • Common to adjust one’s personal goals & beliefs as mature and see new world perspective
identity formation3
Identity Formation
  • Gender & Ethnicity in ID Formation:
    • Everyone struggles with who they are, what they stand for, differs by gender or ethnicity
    • Gender: Erikson’s views primarily apply to males
      • People develop to form intimate relationships in young adults stage, for women relationship more important than occupational issues
      • Freud believed women’s id connected to roles as wives, mothers, while men’s didn’t depend on becoming husband & father
      • Today more women work outside of home and research on female id is changing so that occupational plans almost equal to males
      • Females worry about day to day balancing demands of work & home
        • 2nd shift, working US women mostly responsible for child rearing & home maintenance
    • Ethnicity: Ethnic minorities are faced with 2 sets of values, ethnic group & larger society sometimes in conflict
      • Must reconcile differences & decide where they stand in relation to others
      • Prejudice & discrimination can contribute to problems in id formation
      • Those with multi-racial families or different cultural backgrounds of parents may have hardest time, emotional conflict
challenges of adolescence
Challenges of Adolescence:
  • Difficult Time:
    • Problems seem to large to handle, school or family problems, not accepted by peers, loneliness, low self esteem, getting a good job, supporting family members, acceptance to college, stress
  • Eating Disorders: life-threatening ailment characterized by self-starvation and a distorted body image, recurrent cycles of binge eating, and dramatic measures to eliminate food. Can affect physical development b/c of needed nutrition.
    • Symptoms: excessive dieting & exercise, excessive weight loss, obsession with food
    • Behaviors: binging, purging, fasting, obsessive exercise
    • Needs, girl avg. 2,200 calories daily, Boys avg. 3,000
    • Protein, carbs, fiber, calcium, iron, vitamins, minerals
    • Eating disorders deplete calories & nutrients
    • Continue to affect young adults, recently showed if suffer as adolescent will continue to fight issues throughout life
      • 21 years after hospitalization, only half fully recovered in 10 years
    • Typically young white women of higher socioeconomic status are most likely
challenges of adolescence1
Challenges of Adolescence
  • Anorexia Nervosa: life threatening disorder characterized by self-starvation & distorted body image
    • Usually weight less and 85% of healthy weight
    • More women than men
    • Notices weight gain, decides must come off, continues after initial weight is lost b/c positive attention, continues losing even after gets negative attention
    • Deny issues b/c body image is distorted, look at pockets of nonexistent fat
    • May lose 25% of body weight in a year
    • Overall health declines
    • 4-5% will die from related problems
    • Restrictive Type & Binge Eating/Purging Type
  • Bulimia nervosa: Recurrent cycles of binge eating followed by dramatic measures to eliminate food, vomiting is characteristic, may also use obsessive exercise
    • Binge eating follows severe dieting
    • Usually women
    • Compensate for binge by fasting, strict dieting, exercise
    • Perfectionists in attitudes about shapes & weight
  • Binge eating: out of control eating habits, but don’t purge, could lead to obesity
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder: overly concerned or convinced that they are misshapen or deformed despite evidence to contrary
    • Rarely seek psychological help, see dermatologists or plastic surgeons for help instead
    • Late teen years
    • Usually also OCD or depressed
    • Do it alone, feel guilty, depressed, self-loathing, ashamed
challenges of adolescence2
Challenges of adolescence
  • DSM-IV Criteria Anorexia Nervosa:
    • A. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height (e.g., weight loss leading to maintenance of body weight less than 85% of that expected; or failure to make expected weight gain during period of growth, leading to body weight less than 85% of that expected).
    • B. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
    • C. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
    • D. In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea, i.e., the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles.
  • DSM-IV Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa:
    • A. Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: 
      • (1) eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g., within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances (2) a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g., a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating) 
    • B. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain, such as self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise. 
    • C. The binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors both occur, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months. 
    • D. Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight. 
    • E. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of Anorexia Nervosa. 
challenges of adolescence3
Challenges of Adolescence
  • Origins of Anorexia & Bulimia:
    • More women than men
    • Women’s effort to return to stage before puberty & adolescence, allows to avoid growing up, separating from family, taking on adult responsibility
    • Correlation to overbearing parents and girls with eating disorders, way to gain control over some aspect of life
    • Cultural aspects most important: conform to ideal body shape, model size
    • Men typically involved in sport or job require specific weight
      • Wresting, dancing, modeling
      • Typically use exercise
      • Cultural ideal body image also
    • Families of girls more likely to have eating & dieting issues, think their daughters should lose weight, consider daughters to be unattractive
    • Way to cope with feelings of loneliness
    • Way to avoid health problems widely publicized with obesity
    • Both run in families
      • Genetic factors for perfectionism
  • Treatment: need professional assistance to overcome, school counselor or social worker can recommend
  • Treatment program (caloric intake closely monitored)
  • Remain in school & receive counseling, weekly meetings
challenges of adolescence4
Challenges of adolescence
  • Substance Abuse: use of alcohol, drugs, and other substances to alter mood, done to point of emotional or physical damage. May be linked to genetics, but environment plays a role.
    • Symptoms: addition, aggressive behavior, accidents, impaired judgment, physicla symptoms of specific diseases caused by different drugs
    • Behavior: aggression, forgetfulness, drunk driving, erratic judgment & actions
    • usually begins with experimentation in adolescence, b/c of curiosity, boredom, pressure, peer pressure, parental abuse, rebellion, search for excitement or pleasure
    • Prevalence of Substance Abuse:
      • 15,000 teens across US surveyed, drugs & cigarettes increased over 1990’s\
        • Smoking up to 35% in the last month
        • Marijuana nearly doubled from 15% 1991 to 27% 1999
      • National Institute on Drug Abuse concluded it declined from 01-07
      • Alcohol is used occasionally by the majority of HS & college students
        • Recommendations of peers, parents use them, cope with stress, win approval of others, improve mode, decrease anxiety & tension
        • Binge drinking (alcohol abuse regularly bringing BAC to .08 or higher, 5 drinks for men in hour, 4 for women in hour) & long term drinking connected to aggressive behavior, poor grades, car accidents
      • 400,000+ die from smoking related causes each year
        • Lung cancer, emphysema, heart attack
challenges of adolescence5
Challenges of adolescence
    • Marijuana contains more tan than cigarette smoke, influencing lung cancer, makes it more difficult to retain information in and out of school
    • Regular use of alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, barbiturates, heroin can cause addition
      • Intense craving for substance when effects have worn off
      • Have to take more and more to achieve same effects
      • Take control of life, lead to overdose
  • Treatment: can be physically & psychologically painful
    • Admittance to hospital or treatment center for detox: removal of toxic or poisonous substance from body, gradually & carefully taken off
    • Psychological, need therapists to help understand meaning of drug use & help recognize root of problem
  • Drug Prevention:
    • Most school problems aimed at stopping use of gateway drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana
      • Results show mixed results
      • Scarring them can lead to more curiosity & disbelief
      • Peer counseling is more useful b/c would prefer to hear from others who have used them
challenges of adolescence6
Challenges of Adolescence
  • Sexuality:
    • Many struggle with when to express sexual feelings b/c receive mixed messages
    • Body says go for it
    • Parents/adults advise on dangers & make practice abstinence
    • Media, ads, tv, movie, music revolve around sex
    • Teens think sexual activity is more widespread among peers than it is
    • Date & exclusive relationships come earlier now, those date earlier more likely to engage in sexual relations in HS
    • 7.2% of Americans between 15-17 become pregnant, 750,000 a year
      • Hard for teens, parents, and children
      • Uphill struggle, more likely to live in poverty, lack hope for future, ½ all teen mom’s quit high school and receive welfare, few receive financial or emotional help from fathers
      • Fathers often can’t support themselves let alone a family
      • Some girls intentionally do it to strengthen relationship or fill emotional void by having child
        • Usually causes relationship to end due to added stress
      • Can cause emotional problems of the mother worse, serious issues for child
      • Teen moms are more likely to have premature babies, those with health issues, and those who are smaller than average
challenges of adolescence7
Challenges of adolescence
  • Crime & Avoiding Problems:
    • Juvenile Delinquency: refers to many illegal activities committed by children & adolescents
      • Robbery, rape, homicide most serious regardless of age
    • Status offenses: less serious offense, illegal only when committed by minors
      • Underage drinking, driving, smoking, unexcused school absences, runaway
    • Assumption that poor teens in bad neighborhoods are most likely to break law is FALSE
      • Low income is not a factor
    • Assumption if mom works outside home more likely to break law is FALSE
    • Many acts don’t lead to arrest & prosecution, but still have consequences
      • School official, social workers, parents, other authorities most likely to hand out punishment w/o police or courts
    • When are arrested and prosecuted often referred to mental health agency
    • 25-30% serious crimes in US committed by teens under age of 18
challenges of adolescence8
Challenges of Adolescence
  • Factors contributing:
    • Low self-esteem
    • Feelings of alienation or estrangement
    • Lack of affection, lax discipline, use of physical punishment at home
    • Behavior problems beginning early
    • Poor grades & lack of education or vocational goals
    • Pressure from peers
    • Parent or sibling convicted of criminal behavior
  • Education & Vocational goals help teens steer clear of such issues
  • Being able to talk to any adult (parent, counselor, teacher, community leader) deters use
  • Many troubled youth don’t get help till already in trouble and pattern is established, more difficult to change then
  • Most successful delinquency prevention programs address problem early
    • Classes & support groups for parents, make home visits to families, provide services, encourage parents to become involved in activities with kids in & out of school
    • More likely to do better in school, graduate, go to college, get a steady job, less inclined to commit crimes