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Adolescence. And the School Environment. Historical Aspects. States Laws (1890 to 1920) Excluded youth from jobs High School Graduates increased by 600% Comprehensive Curriculum (1920’s) General ed., college prep, vocational ed. Twentieth Century Continued

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  1. Adolescence And the School Environment

  2. Historical Aspects • States Laws (1890 to 1920) • Excluded youth from jobs • High School Graduates increased by 600% • Comprehensive Curriculum (1920’s) • General ed., college prep, vocational ed. • Twentieth Century Continued • Addition of music, art, health, physical education, etc. • High Schools Contribute to Transition Problems (1970’s) • Adolescents are alienated from the adult world

  3. Historical Aspects II • Back to the Basics Movement (1980’s) • Schools should focus on intellectual development (English, math, and science) • Social and emotional development apart • Was a reaction to open-education approach in the 1970’s (peace, love, and development man) • Too many products with little guidance

  4. Cross Cultural Comparison • Begin at age6-7 and go to age 14-17 • Brazil (14) USA, Australia, Germany (15-16) • Differences exist in levels (eg. JH & HS) • Entrance exam and exit exams • Sports teams • Language requirements, career or vocation focus, intellectual focus

  5. Contemporary Approaches • Direct Instruction Approach • Teacher direction over learning • Cognitive Constructivist Approach • Students explore and construct knowledge • Teacher provides support to student • Social Constructivist Approach • Co-construction including teacher and student • What are the advantages & disadvantages of each? (e.g. content vs process)

  6. Accountability • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) • Strengths • Weaknesses or Criticisms

  7. Transitions in Schooling I. • Transition to Middle or Junior High School • Junior High emerged due to physical, cognitive, and social changes related to early adolescence • Middle School addresses early puberty • JH and MS are watered down HS!? • Time of transition accompanies many adolescent cog, bio, and soc changes • What are negative features of transition? • Top-Dog Phenomenon

  8. Transitions in Schooling II. • An 8-4 arrangement produces fewer transitions than a 6-3-3 arrangement. • Schools should implement strategies to decrease stress (support, less anonymity, stability, less complexity) • Friendship patterns, and parent attunement (support/warmth, regulation, autonomy) • What are the positive aspects of transition?

  9. Social Policy • Consider the Eight Principles of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (next slide and pg. 363) • What are the challenges of each principle? • Which way does it lean (open education or back to the basics)?

  10. The Successful Middle SchoolThe Carnegie Report Recommendations • Develop smaller communities (more personal) • Lower student to counselor ratios • Involve parents and community leaders • Curricula that includes sciences, health, ethics, and citizenship • Team teach to integrate several disciplines • Boost student health and fitness with more in school programs and public health care

  11. The American High School • Is it a good model? What should be changed? • Achievement expectations • Curriculum • Engaging learners • ? • ?

  12. High School Dropout and NonCollege Youth • Today 11% do not finish High School (see ed.gov) • Causes include: • School related problems (50%), economic (20%), family-related, peer related, and personal reasons • Reducing: • Bridge gap between school and work, focus on the college bound and non-college bound student, strengthen school system • “Losers”? What is your reaction?

  13. Transition from HS to College • Advantages • Autonomy which can promote identity development (welcome to the big world) • Parent-child relationships change • If boarding at the school • Disadvantage • Delays transition into the adult world of work • Little direction and assistance in the process • Increase in stress, anxiety, depression, etc. • 2005 freshman report more stress than freshman of 1985.

  14. Transition from College to Work • The tearful, scared student advisory experience (What now?) • Perhaps a focus on more vocational skills rather than general knowledge would benefit the USA. • What are the benefits of a college education? • What difference will it make in your life? • What difference will your education make in your community?

  15. Schools: Size and Climate I. • School Size is Not Correlated with Academic Achievement • More prosocial behavior in smaller schools • Average classroom in the US is 30-35 • Data suggests that substantial reductions in class size do improve student achievement. • Primary Grades, Low-Achieving Students, Students from Low SES • Greatest gains in achievement occur when the class size is 20 or fewer students

  16. Schools: Size and Climate II. • Classroom Climate • Authoritative • Produces active and self-regulated learners • Authoritarian • Passive learners, low initiation, anxious about social comparison, poor communication skills • Permissive • Inadequate academic skills and low self-esteem (?)

  17. Extracurricular Activities • Involvement in eca is associated with: • Academic adjustment, psychological competencies, positive peer relations, and other positive developmental outcomes (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006) • Correlational data- What does it mean?

  18. School: Teachers and Parents • Teachers list parental involvement as the number one priority in improving education • Parental involvement decreases over time • Cross cultural comparisons on pg 379

  19. Adolescents Who are Exceptional • Learning Disabilities • ADD and ADHD • Legal Issues • Mainstreaming/Inclusion

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