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Adolescence. And the School Environment. Historical Aspects. States Laws (1890 to 1920) Excluded youth from jobs High School Graduates increased by 600% Comprehensive Curriculum (1920’s) General ed., college prep, vocational ed. Twentieth Century Continued

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And the School Environment

historical aspects
Historical Aspects
  • States Laws (1890 to 1920)
    • Excluded youth from jobs
    • High School Graduates increased by 600%
  • Comprehensive Curriculum (1920’s)
    • General ed., college prep, vocational ed.
  • Twentieth Century Continued
    • Addition of music, art, health, physical education, etc.
  • High Schools Contribute to Transition Problems (1970’s)
    • Adolescents are alienated from the adult world
historical aspects ii
Historical Aspects II
  • Back to the Basics Movement (1980’s)
    • Schools should focus on intellectual development (English, math, and science)
    • Social and emotional development apart
    • Was a reaction to open-education approach in the 1970’s (peace, love, and development man)
    • Too many products with little guidance
cross cultural comparison
Cross Cultural Comparison
  • Begin at age6-7 and go to age 14-17
    • Brazil (14) USA, Australia, Germany (15-16)
  • Differences exist in levels (eg. JH & HS)
  • Entrance exam and exit exams
  • Sports teams
  • Language requirements, career or vocation focus, intellectual focus
contemporary approaches
Contemporary Approaches
  • Direct Instruction Approach
    • Teacher direction over learning
  • Cognitive Constructivist Approach
    • Students explore and construct knowledge
    • Teacher provides support to student
  • Social Constructivist Approach
    • Co-construction including teacher and student
  • What are the advantages & disadvantages of each? (e.g. content vs process)
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
    • Strengths
    • Weaknesses or Criticisms
transitions in schooling i
Transitions in Schooling I.
  • Transition to Middle or Junior High School
    • Junior High emerged due to physical, cognitive, and social changes related to early adolescence
    • Middle School addresses early puberty
    • JH and MS are watered down HS!?
    • Time of transition accompanies many adolescent cog, bio, and soc changes
    • What are negative features of transition?
      • Top-Dog Phenomenon
transitions in schooling ii
Transitions in Schooling II.
  • An 8-4 arrangement produces fewer transitions than a 6-3-3 arrangement.
  • Schools should implement strategies to decrease stress (support, less anonymity, stability, less complexity)
  • Friendship patterns, and parent attunement (support/warmth, regulation, autonomy)
  • What are the positive aspects of transition?
social policy
Social Policy
  • Consider the Eight Principles of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (next slide and pg. 363)
    • What are the challenges of each principle?
    • Which way does it lean (open education or back to the basics)?
the successful middle school the carnegie report recommendations
The Successful Middle SchoolThe Carnegie Report Recommendations
  • Develop smaller communities (more personal)
  • Lower student to counselor ratios
  • Involve parents and community leaders
  • Curricula that includes sciences, health, ethics, and citizenship
  • Team teach to integrate several disciplines
  • Boost student health and fitness with more in school programs and public health care
the american high school
The American High School
  • Is it a good model? What should be changed?
    • Achievement expectations
    • Curriculum
    • Engaging learners
    • ?
    • ?
high school dropout and noncollege youth
High School Dropout and NonCollege Youth
  • Today 11% do not finish High School (see
  • Causes include:
    • School related problems (50%), economic (20%), family-related, peer related, and personal reasons
  • Reducing:
    • Bridge gap between school and work, focus on the college bound and non-college bound student, strengthen school system
  • “Losers”? What is your reaction?
transition from hs to college
Transition from HS to College
  • Advantages
    • Autonomy which can promote identity development (welcome to the big world)
    • Parent-child relationships change
      • If boarding at the school
  • Disadvantage
    • Delays transition into the adult world of work
    • Little direction and assistance in the process
    • Increase in stress, anxiety, depression, etc.
    • 2005 freshman report more stress than freshman of 1985.
transition from college to work
Transition from College to Work
  • The tearful, scared student advisory experience (What now?)
  • Perhaps a focus on more vocational skills rather than general knowledge would benefit the USA.
    • What are the benefits of a college education?
    • What difference will it make in your life?
    • What difference will your education make in your community?
schools size and climate i
Schools: Size and Climate I.
  • School Size is Not Correlated with Academic Achievement
  • More prosocial behavior in smaller schools
  • Average classroom in the US is 30-35
  • Data suggests that substantial reductions in class size do improve student achievement.
    • Primary Grades, Low-Achieving Students, Students from Low SES
    • Greatest gains in achievement occur when the class size is 20 or fewer students
schools size and climate ii
Schools: Size and Climate II.
  • Classroom Climate
    • Authoritative
      • Produces active and self-regulated learners
    • Authoritarian
      • Passive learners, low initiation, anxious about social comparison, poor communication skills
    • Permissive
      • Inadequate academic skills and low self-esteem (?)
extracurricular activities
Extracurricular Activities
  • Involvement in eca is associated with:
    • Academic adjustment, psychological competencies, positive peer relations, and other positive developmental outcomes (Fredricks & Eccles, 2006)
    • Correlational data- What does it mean?
school teachers and parents
School: Teachers and Parents
  • Teachers list parental involvement as the number one priority in improving education
  • Parental involvement decreases over time
  • Cross cultural comparisons on pg 379
adolescents who are exceptional
Adolescents Who are Exceptional
  • Learning Disabilities
  • ADD and ADHD
  • Legal Issues
  • Mainstreaming/Inclusion