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Chapter 7 Motivation. Learning Objectives. Define and understand the nature of motivation Explain major content and process theories of motivation and how culture influences their application Discuss how culture influences rewards

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chapter 7 motivation
Chapter 7Motivation

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Define and understand the nature of motivation
  • Explain major content and process theories of motivation and how culture influences their application
  • Discuss how culture influences rewards
  • Explain how the meaning of work in different countries influences motivation
  • Consider ways of developing cross-cultural motivation systems

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.


The amount of effort that an individual puts into doing something

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

content theories
Content Theories

Focus on the “what,” identifying factors that cause people to put effort into work

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs




Safety and Security


© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

herzberg s motivation hygiene theory
Hygiene Factors

Company policy and administration


Relationship with supervisor

Work conditions


Relationships with peers


Motivation Factors



Interesting work




Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

mcclelland s learned needs theory
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  • Need for Achievement

Concern for establishing and maintaining high levels of performance quality

  • Need for Power

Concern for reputation, responsibility, influence, impact, and control over others

  • Need for Affiliation

Concern for establishing and maintaining social relationships

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

conclusions about the content theories
Conclusions about the Content Theories
  • Restrict explanations of motivation to a particular set of factors and how these motivate people
  • Lack of conclusive research support
  • Identify concepts useful for gaining a better understanding of motivation
  • Valuable starting point for examining cultural and individual differences in motivation

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

process theories
Process Theories
  • Concern the “how,” the steps an individual takes in putting forth effort
  • Attempt to discover universal mechanisms to explain motivation
  • Can incorporate specific cultural and other factors into the models to motivate individuals

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

reinforcement theory
Reinforcement Theory
  • Giving a reward/reinforcer increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated
  • Ignoring behavior increases the likelihood that it will not be repeated
  • Punishment usually puts an immediate end to a behavior but does not guarantee it will stop in the long run

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

goal setting theory
Goal Setting Theory
  • Higher performance can be achieved by
    • Setting goals that are
      • Specific, rather than vague
      • Difficult, but achievable, rather than easy
    • Giving feedback, rather than no feedback
  • Effectiveness of theory depends on
    • Commitment to goal
    • Self-efficacy

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

the expectancy model of motivation
The Expectancy Model of Motivation

E P expectancy

Perceived probability

of successful


given effort

P O expectancy

Perceived probability of

receiving an outcome,

given successful


Second-level outcomes,

each with valence

First-level outcomes,

each with valence

Outcome D

Outcome A


Outcome E

Outcome B





Perceived probability of a

first-level outcome leading

to a second-level outcome

Outcome C


Motivation is expressed as follows:

M = [E ® P] å[(P ® O) (V)]

equity theory
Equity Theory

Outcomesself Outcomesother

InputsselfInputs other

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

conclusions about the process theories
Conclusions about the Process Theories
  • More effective than content theories in explaining motivational constructs that can apply globally
  • Must consider cultural variations to enhance the applicability of a particular model
  • Achieve a deeper level of analysis and allow for individual differences

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

culture and rewards
Culture and Rewards
  • Individual versus group
  • Masculine versus feminine
  • Gifts versus rewards for performance
  • Individual preferences within cultures

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

organizational reward practices
Organizational Reward Practices
  • Appropriate rewards can be motivating
  • Non-cash rewards popular in some companies
  • Europe companies using more variable compensation and flexible benefits
  • Companies can develop rewards that are unique to their business

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

the meaning of work study
The Meaning of Work Study
  • Work centrality
    • Degree of importance and value of work
    • Japan highest, Britain lowest
  • Societal norms about working
    • Obligation
    • Entitlement
  • Work goals
    • Relative importance of outcomes

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

convergence or divergence
Popularity of U.S. business education leads to an emphasis on U.S. motivation theories

Global corporations desire to develop consistent policies and practices worldwide

Application of U.S. motivation theories not applicable across cultures

Need to develop adaptable systems that are consistent and effective in motivating people across cultures

Convergence or Divergence?

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

implications for managers
Implications for Managers
  • Choosing an approach to motivation is difficult
  • Process theories appear more promising than content theories
  • Need to understand people who work for you to select an appropriate system

© 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.