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Chapter 7Motivation © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Learning Objectives • Define and understand the nature of motivation • Explain major content and process theories of motivation and how culture influences their application • Discuss how culture influences rewards • Explain how the meaning of work in different countries influences motivation • Consider ways of developing cross-cultural motivation systems © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Motivation The amount of effort that an individual puts into doing something © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Content Theories Focus on the “what,” identifying factors that cause people to put effort into work © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Self-Esteem Social Safety and Security Physiological © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hygiene Factors Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary Relationships with peers Security Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition Interesting work Responsibility Advancement Growth Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory • Need for Achievement Concern for establishing and maintaining high levels of performance quality • Need for Power Concern for reputation, responsibility, influence, impact, and control over others • Need for Affiliation Concern for establishing and maintaining social relationships © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Conclusions about the Content Theories • Restrict explanations of motivation to a particular set of factors and how these motivate people • Lack of conclusive research support • Identify concepts useful for gaining a better understanding of motivation • Valuable starting point for examining cultural and individual differences in motivation © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Process Theories • Concern the “how,” the steps an individual takes in putting forth effort • Attempt to discover universal mechanisms to explain motivation • Can incorporate specific cultural and other factors into the models to motivate individuals © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Reinforcement Theory • Giving a reward/reinforcer increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated • Ignoring behavior increases the likelihood that it will not be repeated • Punishment usually puts an immediate end to a behavior but does not guarantee it will stop in the long run © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Goal Setting Theory • Higher performance can be achieved by • Setting goals that are • Specific, rather than vague • Difficult, but achievable, rather than easy • Giving feedback, rather than no feedback • Effectiveness of theory depends on • Commitment to goal • Self-efficacy © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
The Expectancy Model of Motivation E P expectancy Perceived probability of successful performance, given effort P O expectancy Perceived probability of receiving an outcome, given successful performance Second-level outcomes, each with valence First-level outcomes, each with valence Outcome D Outcome A (extrinsic) Outcome E Outcome B (extrinsic) Effort Performance Instrumentality Perceived probability of a first-level outcome leading to a second-level outcome Outcome C (intrinsic) Motivation is expressed as follows: M = [E ® P] å[(P ® O) (V)]
Equity Theory Outcomesself Outcomesother InputsselfInputs other © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Conclusions about the Process Theories • More effective than content theories in explaining motivational constructs that can apply globally • Must consider cultural variations to enhance the applicability of a particular model • Achieve a deeper level of analysis and allow for individual differences © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Culture and Rewards • Individual versus group • Masculine versus feminine • Gifts versus rewards for performance • Individual preferences within cultures © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Organizational Reward Practices • Appropriate rewards can be motivating • Non-cash rewards popular in some companies • Europe companies using more variable compensation and flexible benefits • Companies can develop rewards that are unique to their business © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
The Meaning of Work Study • Work centrality • Degree of importance and value of work • Japan highest, Britain lowest • Societal norms about working • Obligation • Entitlement • Work goals • Relative importance of outcomes © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Popularity of U.S. business education leads to an emphasis on U.S. motivation theories Global corporations desire to develop consistent policies and practices worldwide Application of U.S. motivation theories not applicable across cultures Need to develop adaptable systems that are consistent and effective in motivating people across cultures Convergence or Divergence? © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Implications for Managers • Choosing an approach to motivation is difficult • Process theories appear more promising than content theories • Need to understand people who work for you to select an appropriate system © 2005 Prentice-Hall, Inc.