Download
chapter 21 world war i n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 21 – World War I PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 21 – World War I

Chapter 21 – World War I

104 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 21 – World War I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 21 – World War I

  2. Section 1 – World War I Breaks Out • Causes of the War • MANIA • M = Militarism • Glorification of military strength • A = Alliances • Agreement between countries to work together for the benefit of each country • N = Nationalism • Extreme Pride in ones Nation or State. Often seen by Flags, National Anthems, and other Signature Items • I = Imperialism • Domination of One Country over another in terms of Political, Economic, or Cultural Life • A = Assassination • Deliberate Murder of a High Ranking Government Official

  3. Militarism and Alliances • Germany • Otto Von Bismarck • Unite German States • Build up military • France • Build up Navy • Britain • Disputes • Settled on battlefield • Arms race • Larger armies • More powerful weapons • Promises to aid the other • Germany – Austria = Dual Alliance • France – Russia – Great Britain = Triple Entente

  4. Nationalism and Imperialism • Balkans • Unstable • Powder Keg of Europe • One spark to set it off • Albanians, Greeks, Romanians, Slavs • Greeks revolt 1820 • Romania 1859 • Bulgarians, Montenegrins, Serbs – Staked claims to nationhood • Austria-Hungary • Occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina • Also claimed by Serbia • Imperialism • Germany vs. France • Alsace-Lorraine • Africa • Could only expand by taking land from France/Britain

  5. Assassination • June 1914 • Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Visited Sarajevo • Serbian Nationalist • GavriloPrincip • The Black Hand • Franz Joseph • Ruler of Austria-Hungary • Offers list of 12 harsh demands to Serbia • Meet all but 1 • July 28th, 1914 • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia

  6. Weapons and Innovations • Major innovations in weaponry prior to outbreak of WWI: • Smokeless gun-powder • Artillery with high rounded trajectory • Machine Gun- 1st automatic was introduced in 1884 by Hiram Maxim (fired 600 rounds/minute) • Rifles-improved by the invention of smokeless powder, and magazines

  7. The Great War • Germany supports Austria-Hungary • Kaiser Wilhelm • Russia honors alliance - Serbia • Slav Nations • Global War • Allied Powers – Triple Entente • Britain, France, Russia • Central Powers • Germany, Austria-Hungary • Known as the Great War, later renamed World War I

  8. The Conflict Expands • On July 29 • Russia began mobilizing • Germany demands Russia stop • Russia refused • Russia’s ally, France began to ready troops, as did Germany • August 1, Germany declared war on Russia • Germany had long prepared for this day • To avoid a 2 front war, Germany developed a first-strike strategy known as the SchlieffenPlan • SchlieffenPlan • Quick sweep through France to knock the French out of the war and keep British across English Channel, then the German army would turn east and defeat Russia • Germany marched through Belgium • A country whose neutrality was protected by an international treaty • This invasion brought the British into the conflict on August 4th

  9. 1914

  10. War Reaches a Stalemate • Kaiser Wilhelm • “home before the leaves have fallen from the trees” • Germans • Sweep through Belgium and Northern France • September • 30 miles of Paris • Western Front • First Battle of the Marne • French and British forces stop the German advance • Both sides then dug in and fortified their lines • Relatively equal in size and strength, the two sides reached a bloody stalemate

  11. Trench Warfare • Trench Warfare • Muddy, rat-infested trenches • Artillery Barrages • “No-man’s land” • Barbed Wire and Mines • Soldiers • “Over the top” • Neither side able to gain more than a few miles for months • In just 1st5 months of war • Approx. 1 million French soldiers were seriously injured or killed

  12. Eastern Front • Eastern Front • Poorly-armed Russian army invaded Germany and Austria-Hungary • Russia’s early victories • Frightened Germany • Soldiers sent to Eastern Front ahead of schedule • German army pushes the invading Russian armies back • By end of 1914

  13. Modern Warfare • Machine Guns • Vickers, Hotchkiss, & Lewis (British) • Browning Machine Gun (American) • Shot 450 rounds per minute • Water Cooling Jackets • Used Ammunition Belt to Feed Bullets • Usually Team of 2-6 • Used Tri-pods

  14. Modern Warfare Continued • Poison Gases • Chlorine Gas • 1streleased by German army • Shot into Allied trenches in April of 1915 • Mustard Gas was used later on • Tanks • 1st used by British in 1915 • Mobility to the Western Front • Had Caterpillar Tracks • Cross Tough Terrain • Combat Trench Warfare • Machine Guns • Troop Movement

  15. New Weapons • Submarines – German U-Boats • Avoid • Munitions from getting to Britain • Commercial ships • Military ships • Airplanes • Scout positions • Later – Machine Guns • 5 kills by Pilot = Aces • Germany • Manfred Von Richthofen • Red Baron • 80 Kills • Americans • 55 primitive planes • Edward Rickenbacker • 26 Kills

  16. 1916 Offensives • Germans • “bleed the French army white” • Targeted • Verdun • 21 hour artillery barrage • 1 million shells fired • 1 million troops • French – 200,000 • Back and forth for months • Allies • Battle of the Somme • Exhaust enemy reserves • British • 60,000 casualties in single day • 4 month long battle • 1 million dead and wounded • Disease– Lice and Rats

  17. Section 2 – The United States Goes to War • U.S. Neutrality • European matter • Great Britain Propaganda • Germans • Brutal Killers • British Blockade • Mines in North Sea • Germany Blockade • “War zone” around Britain • German U-Boats • Germany accountable for any injury to American lives or property on the high seas

  18. U.S. Involvement • March 28, 1915 • British passenger ship • 100 people • 1 American • May 7th, 1915 • Lusitania • 128 Americans • “Savages drunk with blood” • Germans • Lusitania • Transporting armament for Britain • Wilson • Pledges to stop unrestricted submarine warfare • Secretary of State - William Jennings Bryan • Resigns

  19. The Road to War • March 1916 • French Vessel • Sussex • Sussex Pledge • Would not sink liners without warning or without ensuring passengers safety • Teddy Roosevelt • “weakness and cowardice” • William Jennings Bryan • Commercial and Trade policies helped allies • American Banks • Loaned billions to Britain and France • Robert Lansing • Encouraged trade with allies • $500 million

  20. Preparedness and Peace • “Preparedness” Program • Military • National Defense Act • 90,000 – 175,000 • Goal of 223,000 • National Guard • 450,000 troops • $313 Million • Build up the Navy • Wilson reelection • “He kept us out of War” • Narrowly defeats Charles Evan Hughes • Peace without victory • Nations rejected Wilson as mediator

  21. Diplomatic relations Broken/U.S. Declares War • German U-Boats • Full scale warfare • Defeat fleet before U.S. joins war • Wilson • Arms American merchant ships • U-Boats sink 5 American ships • German foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman • Zimmerman Note • April 2nd, 1917 • Asked Congress to declare war • April 4th, 1917 • Senate declares War • House follows 2 days later • Not unanimous • Jeanette Rankin – Montana

  22. Mobilizing U.S. Military Power • Selective Service Act • 21-30 register • Later 18-45 • End of WWI • 24 million had registered • 2.8 were drafted • More than ½ who served were draftees • 10,000 American Indians • 1924 – Citizenship • 370,000 African Americans • Block from Marines • Cooks in Navy • Not integrated

  23. Over There • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) • Regular Army • National Guard • Draftees and Volunteers • General John J. Pershing • U.S. fight as a separate unit • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uXsZp24jk2E • July 4, 1917 • “Yanks” • Paris, France • Marquis de Lafayette • Convoy System • 2 million soldiers • Not 1 died as a result of attack on high seas

  24. Section 3 – The War at Home • Costs $35 billion • Including leans to Allies • Liberty bonds & Victory bonds • Increased taxes • $10 billion for the war • William McAdoo • Secretary of the Treasury • Food Administration • Herbert Hoover • Granted farmers high prices • Wheatless and meatless days • Victory Gardens • Fuel Administration • Harry Garfield

  25. Organizing Industry/Mobilizing Workers • War Industries Board (WIB) • Bernard Baruch • Wall Street Investor • National War Labor Board (NWLB) • AFL – 2 million to 3.2 million • Women • 6 percent • 1.5 million American Women • Juliette Gordon Low • Girl Scouts of America • Peach pits • Gas mask filters

  26. Great Migration • Great Migration • African Americans from South to Northern cities from 1915 to 1930 • Papers encouraged migration • Committee on Public Information (CPI) • George Creel • Propaganda campaign • Support the War • Hollywood • The Claws of the Hun • The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin • Education • Teaching English and U.S. History and Government • Patriotic duty

  27. Suppressing Opposition • Quakers and Mennonites • Opposed war • Pacifism • Politicians • Jeannette Rankin • Robert La Follette • Jane Addams • Socialist Party • Eugene Debs • 10 years for making speech against the war • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) • Espionage and Sedition Acts • Illegal “utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal or abusive language criticizing the government”

  28. Section 4 – The War’s End and Aftermath • End of Romanov Dynasty • Tsar Nicholas II • Bolsheviks: • Radical Russian Socialists Group • November 1917 seize power • Opposed the War • Hammer & Sickle: • Represent Nations Workers & Peasants • Star Represents the Rule of the Communists Party • Vladimir Lenin • Bolshevik Leader • Signs Brest-Litovsk Treaty in 1918 • Removed Russia from War • Germany can Focus on Western Front

  29. Germany’s Spring Offensives • Luderndorff • March 21, 1918 • 1 Million German Soldiers •  6,000 Artillery Pieces • Big Bertha's • 2,100 - pound shell, 9 miles • By May • 50 miles from Paris • General Pershing • U.S. troops under French Command • Marshal Ferdinand Foch • Chateau-Thierry on June 3-4 • Saves Paris • Final Assault • July 15 • 3 days later – American led counterattack

  30. Allied Victory • Battle of the Argonne Forest • 120,000 American casualties • Lost Battallion • Cher Ami “Dear Friend” • African American troops • 369th Infantry • Croix de Guerre (Cross of War) • Morale Sags • Mutinies • German Chancellor – asks for armistice • November 9th – Kaiser Wilhelm gives up throne • Armistice • Evacuate Alsace-Lorraine, Belgium, France, and Luxembourg • Surrender Military equipment • Cease fire • 11th hour, of the 11th day, of the 11th month

  31. Wilson’s 14 points • Fourteen Points • Program for World Peace • 9 dealt with self-determination • Right of people to govern themselves • 5 dealt with causes of modern war • Secret diplomacy, arms race, trade barriers • Final Point – League of Nations • International body to prevent offensive wars • Allies and Germans refuse • Big Four • Wilson, David Lloyd George (Britain), Georges Clemenceau(France), Vittorio Orlando (Italy) • Germany – reparations • Violates 14 points • League of Nations • No U.S. representation

  32. Global Impact of the War • Treaty of Versailles • June 28, 1919 • 8.5 Million Dead • 21 Million Wounded • Germany • Inflation • Food shortages • Balfour Declaration • Jewish homeland in Palestine